Evaluation of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium content in commercially available foods formulated for healthy cats

Stacie C. Summers, Jonathan Stockman, Jennifer A. Larsen, Lei Zhang, Anais Sanchez Rodriguez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: High dietary phosphorus (P) and low calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) are associated with kidney damage in cats. There are no established guidelines for dietary P maximum for cats. Objectives: To quantify crude protein, P, Ca, and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in cat foods and compare among food formats (dry, canned, raw), primary protein ingredients, protein concentrations (low, moderate, high), grain-free versus grain-containing foods, foods intended for adult maintenance versus all life stages, and cost. Samples: Eighty-two commercial nonprescription cat foods. Methods: Descriptive study. Mineral concentrations were measured using inductively coupled argon plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Crude protein was measured using the Dumas nitrogen combustion method. Mineral and crude protein concentrations were compared among food categories. Results: Twenty-seven foods contained ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME), of which 7 exceeded 4.8 g/1000 kcal ME. Thirteen foods had low Ca:P ratio (≤1.0). The low-protein diet group had no products ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal ME, which was significantly different compared to the high-protein diet group (52% of products had ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal ME; P =.01). No significant differences in P content and Ca:P ratio were found among other diet categories. Canned foods had significantly lower Mg compared to dry (P <.001) and raw (P =.007) foods. Declared minimum P and Ca were significantly lower than analyzed concentrations (P =.0005 and P =.003, respectively). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: The high number of foods with high P and low Ca suggest that pet food regulatory reform should be considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)266-273
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume34
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Fingerprint

Formulated Food
pet foods
metabolizable energy
Phosphorus
Magnesium
magnesium
Cats
cats
Calcium
calcium
phosphorus
Food
crude protein
canned foods
descriptive studies
Dietary Guidelines
high protein diet
low protein diet
combustion
mineral content

Keywords

  • adult
  • calcium
  • commercial
  • diets
  • feline
  • foods
  • phosphorus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Evaluation of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium content in commercially available foods formulated for healthy cats. / Summers, Stacie C.; Stockman, Jonathan; Larsen, Jennifer A.; Zhang, Lei; Rodriguez, Anais Sanchez.

In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 1, 01.01.2020, p. 266-273.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Summers, Stacie C. ; Stockman, Jonathan ; Larsen, Jennifer A. ; Zhang, Lei ; Rodriguez, Anais Sanchez. / Evaluation of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium content in commercially available foods formulated for healthy cats. In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2020 ; Vol. 34, No. 1. pp. 266-273.
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abstract = "Background: High dietary phosphorus (P) and low calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) are associated with kidney damage in cats. There are no established guidelines for dietary P maximum for cats. Objectives: To quantify crude protein, P, Ca, and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in cat foods and compare among food formats (dry, canned, raw), primary protein ingredients, protein concentrations (low, moderate, high), grain-free versus grain-containing foods, foods intended for adult maintenance versus all life stages, and cost. Samples: Eighty-two commercial nonprescription cat foods. Methods: Descriptive study. Mineral concentrations were measured using inductively coupled argon plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Crude protein was measured using the Dumas nitrogen combustion method. Mineral and crude protein concentrations were compared among food categories. Results: Twenty-seven foods contained ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME), of which 7 exceeded 4.8 g/1000 kcal ME. Thirteen foods had low Ca:P ratio (≤1.0). The low-protein diet group had no products ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal ME, which was significantly different compared to the high-protein diet group (52{\%} of products had ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal ME; P =.01). No significant differences in P content and Ca:P ratio were found among other diet categories. Canned foods had significantly lower Mg compared to dry (P <.001) and raw (P =.007) foods. Declared minimum P and Ca were significantly lower than analyzed concentrations (P =.0005 and P =.003, respectively). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: The high number of foods with high P and low Ca suggest that pet food regulatory reform should be considered.",
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N2 - Background: High dietary phosphorus (P) and low calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) are associated with kidney damage in cats. There are no established guidelines for dietary P maximum for cats. Objectives: To quantify crude protein, P, Ca, and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in cat foods and compare among food formats (dry, canned, raw), primary protein ingredients, protein concentrations (low, moderate, high), grain-free versus grain-containing foods, foods intended for adult maintenance versus all life stages, and cost. Samples: Eighty-two commercial nonprescription cat foods. Methods: Descriptive study. Mineral concentrations were measured using inductively coupled argon plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Crude protein was measured using the Dumas nitrogen combustion method. Mineral and crude protein concentrations were compared among food categories. Results: Twenty-seven foods contained ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME), of which 7 exceeded 4.8 g/1000 kcal ME. Thirteen foods had low Ca:P ratio (≤1.0). The low-protein diet group had no products ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal ME, which was significantly different compared to the high-protein diet group (52% of products had ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal ME; P =.01). No significant differences in P content and Ca:P ratio were found among other diet categories. Canned foods had significantly lower Mg compared to dry (P <.001) and raw (P =.007) foods. Declared minimum P and Ca were significantly lower than analyzed concentrations (P =.0005 and P =.003, respectively). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: The high number of foods with high P and low Ca suggest that pet food regulatory reform should be considered.

AB - Background: High dietary phosphorus (P) and low calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) are associated with kidney damage in cats. There are no established guidelines for dietary P maximum for cats. Objectives: To quantify crude protein, P, Ca, and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in cat foods and compare among food formats (dry, canned, raw), primary protein ingredients, protein concentrations (low, moderate, high), grain-free versus grain-containing foods, foods intended for adult maintenance versus all life stages, and cost. Samples: Eighty-two commercial nonprescription cat foods. Methods: Descriptive study. Mineral concentrations were measured using inductively coupled argon plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Crude protein was measured using the Dumas nitrogen combustion method. Mineral and crude protein concentrations were compared among food categories. Results: Twenty-seven foods contained ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME), of which 7 exceeded 4.8 g/1000 kcal ME. Thirteen foods had low Ca:P ratio (≤1.0). The low-protein diet group had no products ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal ME, which was significantly different compared to the high-protein diet group (52% of products had ≥3.6 g P/1000 kcal ME; P =.01). No significant differences in P content and Ca:P ratio were found among other diet categories. Canned foods had significantly lower Mg compared to dry (P <.001) and raw (P =.007) foods. Declared minimum P and Ca were significantly lower than analyzed concentrations (P =.0005 and P =.003, respectively). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: The high number of foods with high P and low Ca suggest that pet food regulatory reform should be considered.

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