Evaluation of metric, topological, and temporal ordering memory tasks after lateral fluid percussion injury

Gene G. Gurkoff, Jennifer D. Gahan, Rahil T. Ghiasvand, Ryan Hunsaker, Ken Van, Jun Feng Feng, Kiarash Shahlaie, Robert F. Berman, Bruce G. Lyeth, Michael M. Folkerts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Impairments in learning and memory occur in as many as 50% of patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Similar impairments occur in rodent models of TBI, and the development of new memory testing procedures provides an opportunity to examine how TBI affects memory processing in specific neural memory systems. Specifically, metric, topological, and temporal ordering tasks are object-based tests for memory of spatial orientation and temporal sequencing working memory developed for use in rodents. Previous studies demonstrated that specific lesions of the dentate gyrus/CA3 of the hippocampus and the parietal cortex resulted in deficits in the metric and topological spatial orientation tasks, respectively. Lesions of the CA1 impaired a rat's ability to recall the temporal order of odors. The purpose of the following study was to determine whether moderate lateral fluid percussion TBI would generate deficits in these working memory tasks, and whether observed deficits were associated with cell loss in the CA2/3 and/or CA1 of the hippocampus. Two weeks following a moderate lateral fluid percussion TBI, adult rats demonstrated significant deficits in both the metric and temporal ordering tasks (p<0.05) but not in the topological task. Stereological analysis identified a significant reduction in neurons in the CA2/3 (p<0.05) but not the CA1 of the hippocampus. These data demonstrate the utility of three object-based tasks to expand our understanding of how different neural memory systems are affected by TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)292-300
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 15 2013


  • anatomical specificity
  • cognitive dysfunction
  • hippocampus
  • TBI
  • working memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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