Evaluation of different decellularization protocols on the generation of pancreas-derived hydrogels

Roberto Gaetani, Soraya Aude, Lea Lara Demaddalena, Heinz Strassle, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Matthew Wortham, R. Hugh F. Bender, Kim Vy Nguyen-Ngoc, Geert W. Schmid-Schöenbein, Steven George, Christopher C.W. Hughes, Maike Sander, Kirk C. Hansen, Karen L. Christman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Different approaches have investigated the effects of different extracellular matrices (ECMs) and three-dimensional (3D) culture on islet function, showing encouraging results. Ideally, the proper scaffold should mimic the biochemical composition of the native tissue as it drives numerous signaling pathways involved in tissue homeostasis and functionality. Tissue-derived decellularized biomaterials can preserve the ECM composition of the native tissue making it an ideal scaffold for 3D tissue engineering applications. However, the decellularization process may affect the retention of specific components, and the choice of a proper detergent is fundamental in preserving the native ECM composition. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different decellularization protocols on the mechanical properties and biochemical composition of pancreatic ECM (pECM) hydrogels. Fresh porcine pancreas tissue was harvested, cut into small pieces, rinsed in water, and treated with two different detergents (sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS] or Triton X-100) for 1 day followed by 3 days in water. Effective decellularization was confirmed by PicoGreen assay, Hoescht, and H&E staining, showing no differences among groups. Use of a protease inhibitor (PI) was also evaluated. Effective decellularization was confirmed by PicoGreen assay and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, showing no differences among groups. Triton-treated samples were able to form a firm hydrogel under appropriate conditions, while the use of SDS had detrimental effects on the gelation properties of the hydrogels. ECM biochemical composition was characterized both in the fresh porcine pancreas and all decellularized pECM hydrogels by quantitative mass spectrometry analysis. Fibrillar collagen was the major ECM component in all groups, with all generated hydrogels having a higher amount compared with fresh pancreas. This effect was more pronounced in the SDS-treated hydrogels when compared with the Triton groups, showing very little retention of other ECM molecules. Conversely, basement membrane and matricellular proteins were better retained when the tissue was pretreated with a PI and decellularized in Triton X-100, making the hydrogel more similar to the native tissue. In conclusion, we showed that all the protocols evaluated in the study showed effective tissue decellularization, but only when the tissue was pretreated with a PI and decellularized in Triton detergent, the biochemical composition of the hydrogel was closer to the native tissue ECM. The article compares different methodologies for the generation of a pancreas-derived hydrogel for tissue engineering applications. The biochemical characterization of the newly generated hydrogel shows that the material retains all the extracellular molecules of the native tissue and is capable of sustaining functionality of the encapsulated beta-cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)697-708
Number of pages12
JournalTissue Engineering - Part C: Methods
Volume24
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

Keywords

  • cell encapsulation
  • decellularization
  • diabetes
  • extracellular matrix
  • hydrogel
  • pancreas
  • tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomedical Engineering

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    Gaetani, R., Aude, S., Demaddalena, L. L., Strassle, H., Dzieciatkowska, M., Wortham, M., Bender, R. H. F., Nguyen-Ngoc, K. V., Schmid-Schöenbein, G. W., George, S., Hughes, C. C. W., Sander, M., Hansen, K. C., & Christman, K. L. (2018). Evaluation of different decellularization protocols on the generation of pancreas-derived hydrogels. Tissue Engineering - Part C: Methods, 24(12), 697-708. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.tec.2018.0180