Evaluation of Arterial Blood Gases and Arterial Blood Pressures in Brachycephalic Dogs

G. L. Hoareau, G. Jourdan, M. Mellema, P. Verwaerde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Brachycephalic dogs (BD) are prone to congenital upper airway obstruction (brachycephalic syndrome, BS). In humans suffering from sleep apnea, upper airway obstruction is known to cause hypertension. There is no information regarding the influence of BS in dogs on cardiorespiratory physiology. Hypothesis: BD are prone to lower PaO2, higher PaCO 2, and hypertension compared with meso- or dolicocephalic dogs (MDD). Animals: Eleven BD and 11 MDD. Methods: After a questionnaire was completed by the owner, a physical examination was performed. Height and thoracic circumferences were measured. Arterial blood gases, electrolyte concentrations, and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured. Systolic (SAP), mean (MAP), and diastolic (DAP) arterial blood pressure recordings were performed. Results: A total of 7 French and 4 English bulldogs met the inclusion criteria. The control group consisted in 6 Beagles, 2 mixed breed dogs, 1 Staffordshire Bull Terrier, 1 Parson Russell Terrier, and 1 Australian Cattle Dog. Statistically, BD had lower PaO2, higher PaCO2, and higher PCV when compared with controls (86.2 ± 15.9 versus 100.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, P = .017; 36.3 ± 4.6 versus 32.7 ± 2.6 mmHg, P = .019; 48.2 ± 3.5 versus 44.2 ± 5.4%, P = .026, respectively). Also, they had significantly higher SAP (177.6 ± 25.0 versus 153.5 ± 21.7 mmHg, P = .013), MAP (123.3 ± 17.1 versus 108.3 ± 12.2 mmHg, P = .014), and DAP (95.3 ± 19.2 versus 83.0 ± 11.5 mmHg, P = .042). BD with a PaCO 2 >35 mmHg were significantly older than those with a PaCO 2 ≤35 mmHg (58 ± 16 and 30 ± 11 months, P = .004). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that some BD are prone to lower PaO2, higher PaCO 2, and hypertension when compared with MDD. Age may be a contributing factor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)897-904
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume26
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2012

Fingerprint

blood gases
blood pressure
Arterial Pressure
Gases
Dogs
dogs
hypertension
Airway Obstruction
Hypertension
Cell Size
hematocrit
Bull Terrier
sleep apnea
terriers
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
chest
Beagle
clinical examination
Electrolytes
electrolytes

Keywords

  • Chronic hypoxemia
  • Hypertension
  • Peripheral chemoreflex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Evaluation of Arterial Blood Gases and Arterial Blood Pressures in Brachycephalic Dogs. / Hoareau, G. L.; Jourdan, G.; Mellema, M.; Verwaerde, P.

In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 4, 07.2012, p. 897-904.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hoareau, G. L. ; Jourdan, G. ; Mellema, M. ; Verwaerde, P. / Evaluation of Arterial Blood Gases and Arterial Blood Pressures in Brachycephalic Dogs. In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2012 ; Vol. 26, No. 4. pp. 897-904.
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abstract = "Background: Brachycephalic dogs (BD) are prone to congenital upper airway obstruction (brachycephalic syndrome, BS). In humans suffering from sleep apnea, upper airway obstruction is known to cause hypertension. There is no information regarding the influence of BS in dogs on cardiorespiratory physiology. Hypothesis: BD are prone to lower PaO2, higher PaCO 2, and hypertension compared with meso- or dolicocephalic dogs (MDD). Animals: Eleven BD and 11 MDD. Methods: After a questionnaire was completed by the owner, a physical examination was performed. Height and thoracic circumferences were measured. Arterial blood gases, electrolyte concentrations, and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured. Systolic (SAP), mean (MAP), and diastolic (DAP) arterial blood pressure recordings were performed. Results: A total of 7 French and 4 English bulldogs met the inclusion criteria. The control group consisted in 6 Beagles, 2 mixed breed dogs, 1 Staffordshire Bull Terrier, 1 Parson Russell Terrier, and 1 Australian Cattle Dog. Statistically, BD had lower PaO2, higher PaCO2, and higher PCV when compared with controls (86.2 ± 15.9 versus 100.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, P = .017; 36.3 ± 4.6 versus 32.7 ± 2.6 mmHg, P = .019; 48.2 ± 3.5 versus 44.2 ± 5.4{\%}, P = .026, respectively). Also, they had significantly higher SAP (177.6 ± 25.0 versus 153.5 ± 21.7 mmHg, P = .013), MAP (123.3 ± 17.1 versus 108.3 ± 12.2 mmHg, P = .014), and DAP (95.3 ± 19.2 versus 83.0 ± 11.5 mmHg, P = .042). BD with a PaCO 2 >35 mmHg were significantly older than those with a PaCO 2 ≤35 mmHg (58 ± 16 and 30 ± 11 months, P = .004). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that some BD are prone to lower PaO2, higher PaCO 2, and hypertension when compared with MDD. Age may be a contributing factor.",
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N2 - Background: Brachycephalic dogs (BD) are prone to congenital upper airway obstruction (brachycephalic syndrome, BS). In humans suffering from sleep apnea, upper airway obstruction is known to cause hypertension. There is no information regarding the influence of BS in dogs on cardiorespiratory physiology. Hypothesis: BD are prone to lower PaO2, higher PaCO 2, and hypertension compared with meso- or dolicocephalic dogs (MDD). Animals: Eleven BD and 11 MDD. Methods: After a questionnaire was completed by the owner, a physical examination was performed. Height and thoracic circumferences were measured. Arterial blood gases, electrolyte concentrations, and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured. Systolic (SAP), mean (MAP), and diastolic (DAP) arterial blood pressure recordings were performed. Results: A total of 7 French and 4 English bulldogs met the inclusion criteria. The control group consisted in 6 Beagles, 2 mixed breed dogs, 1 Staffordshire Bull Terrier, 1 Parson Russell Terrier, and 1 Australian Cattle Dog. Statistically, BD had lower PaO2, higher PaCO2, and higher PCV when compared with controls (86.2 ± 15.9 versus 100.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, P = .017; 36.3 ± 4.6 versus 32.7 ± 2.6 mmHg, P = .019; 48.2 ± 3.5 versus 44.2 ± 5.4%, P = .026, respectively). Also, they had significantly higher SAP (177.6 ± 25.0 versus 153.5 ± 21.7 mmHg, P = .013), MAP (123.3 ± 17.1 versus 108.3 ± 12.2 mmHg, P = .014), and DAP (95.3 ± 19.2 versus 83.0 ± 11.5 mmHg, P = .042). BD with a PaCO 2 >35 mmHg were significantly older than those with a PaCO 2 ≤35 mmHg (58 ± 16 and 30 ± 11 months, P = .004). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that some BD are prone to lower PaO2, higher PaCO 2, and hypertension when compared with MDD. Age may be a contributing factor.

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KW - Chronic hypoxemia

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KW - Peripheral chemoreflex

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