Etiology of the Protein-Energy Wasting Syndrome in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Consensus Statement From the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM)

Juan Jesús Carrero, Peter Stenvinkel, Lilian Cuppari, T. Alp Ikizler, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, George Kaysen, William E. Mitch, S. Russ Price, Christoph Wanner, Angela Y M Wang, Pieter Ter Wee, Harold A. Franch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

363 Scopus citations

Abstract

Protein-energy wasting (PEW), a term proposed by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM), refers to the multiple nutritional and catabolic alterations that occur in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associate with morbidity and mortality. To increase awareness, identify research needs, and provide the basis for future work to understand therapies and consequences of PEW, ISRNM provides this consensus statement of current knowledge on the etiology of PEW syndrome in CKD. Although insufficient food intake (true undernutrition) due to poor appetite and dietary restrictions contribute, other highly prevalent factors are required for the full syndrome to develop. These include uremia-induced alterations such as increased energy expenditure, persistent inflammation, acidosis, and multiple endocrine disorders that render a state of hypermetabolism leading to excess catabolism of muscle and fat. In addition, comorbid conditions associated with CKD, poor physical activity, frailty, and the dialysis procedure per se further contribute to PEW.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)77-90
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Renal Nutrition
Volume23
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Nephrology

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