Etiology and prognosis for dogs with abnormal blood glucose concentrations evaluated in an emergency room

Simon P. Hagley, Kate Hopper, Steven E. Epstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in nondiabetic dogs presenting to a veterinary emergency room (ER) and their association with underlying disease processes, previous glucocorticoid administration, and overall mortality. Design: Single-center, retrospective study from January 2013 to December 2014. Setting: University Teaching Hospital. Animals: A total of 660 dogs presenting to an ER with a blood glucose concentration measured within 6 hours of presentation. Interventions: None. Measurements and main results: Medical records from dogs with a blood glucose concentration measured within 6 hours of hospital admission were reviewed. Medications administered prior to blood sampling, the presence of shock, final clinical diagnosis, and survival were recorded. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were defined as a blood glucose <4.4 mmol/L (80 mg/dL) and >6.7 mmol/L (120 mg/dL), respectively. Diabetic patients were removed from analysis. Hyperglycemia was found in 40.1% of dogs, whereas hypoglycemia was present in 9.0%. Hyperglycemia was most often associated with gastrointestinal disease, trauma, neoplasia, and respiratory disease. The most common diseases associated with hypoglycemia were sepsis, gastrointestinal disease, and neoplasia. Dogs in shock or with hyperlactatemia had higher blood glucose values than dogs with normal perfusion and plasma lactate concentrations (P = 0.016 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Mortality was higher in dogs with hyperglycemia (33.2%, P = 0.03) or hypoglycemia (44.6%, P = 0.0024) compared to those with normoglycemia (24.9%). Conclusion: Dysglycemia in nondiabetic dogs evaluated in an ER was associated with a higher mortality rate than dogs in the same population with normoglycemia. Hyperglycemia in this population was common and may represent a stress response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)567-573
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Volume30
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020

Keywords

  • dysglycemia
  • hypoglycemia
  • steroid
  • stress hyperglycemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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