Estrogens modulate different physiological functions, including reproduction, inflammation, bone formation, energy expenditure, and food intake. In this review, we highlight the effect of estrogens on food intake regulation and the latest literature on intracellular estrogen signaling. In addition, gut satiety hormones, such as cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin are essential to regulate ingestive behaviors in the postprandial period. These peripheral signals are sensed by vagal afferent terminals in the gut wall and transmitted to the hindbrain axis. Here we 1. review the role of the vagus-hindbrain axis in response to gut satiety signals and 2. consider the potential synergistic effects of estrogens on gut satiety signals at the level of vagal afferent neurons and nuclei located in the hindbrain. Understanding the action of estrogens in gut-brain axis provides a potential strategy to develop estrogen-based therapies for metabolic diseases and emphasizes the importance of sex difference in the treatment of obesity.
- Food intake
- Vagal afferent pathway
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience