Estimating severity of burn in children: Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score versus Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI)

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Abstract

Objective The purpose of our study is to validate the Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score and compare the accuracy of PRISM predicted outcomes to the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI). We hypothesized that the PRISM score is more accurate in predicting mortality and hospital length of stay than the ABSI in children with severe burns. Methods All children <18 years of age admitted to a regional pediatric burn center between January 1, 2008 and July 1, 2010 were reviewed. Those with a Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) burn ≥20% who were admitted within 7 days of injury were selected for our study. Measured parameters included: demographics, burn characteristics, PRISM and ABSI scores at admission, and outcomes (mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), ventilator days and cause of death). Results A total of 83 patients met criteria and had complete data sets. The mean age (±SEM) was 8.0 ± 0.6 years, mean % TBSA burn 49.9 ± 2.1%, 62.7% were male, and 45.8% had inhalation injury. Hospital LOS was 74.4 ± 7.9 days, with 31.5 ± 4.9 ventilator days. Mean PRISM score ranged from 14.2 to 16.0, with ABSI scores 7.9 to 8.5. Actual overall mortality was 18.1% compared to a PRISM predicted mortality of 19.8 ± 2.5% (p < 0.001, r = 0.570). ABSI predicted mortality varied from 10 to 20% for a score of 7.9 to 30-50% for a score of 8.5. Logistic regression showed that both PRISM (p < 0.001) and ABSI (p < 0.001) mortality predictions accurately estimated actual mortality, which remained true in a combined model. ABSI was predictive of hospital LOS (p < 0.001) and ventilator days (p < 0.001) while PRISM was not (p = 0.326 and p = 0.863). Conclusions Both PRISM and ABSI scores are predictive of mortality in severely burned children. Only ABSI correlates with hospital length of stay and ventilator days, and thus may also be more useful in predicting ICU resource utilization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1048-1053
Number of pages6
JournalBurns
Volume39
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2013

Keywords

  • ABSI
  • Burns
  • Outcomes
  • PRISM
  • Scoring systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Surgery

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