Erectogenic and neurotrophic effects of icariin, a purified extract of horny goat weed (Epimedium spp.) in vitro and in vivo

Alan W Shindel, Zhong Chen Xin, Guiting Lin, Thomas M. Fandel, Yun Ching Huang, Lia Banie, Benjamin N. Breyer, Maurice M. Garcia, Ching Shwun Lin, Tom F. Lue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction.: Epimedium species (aka horny goat weed) have been utilized for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many years. Icariin (ICA) is the active moiety of Epimedium species. Aim.: To evaluate the penile hemodynamic and tissue effects of ICA in cavernous nerve injured rats. We also studied the in vitro effects of ICA on cultured pelvic ganglia. Methods.: Rats were subjected to cavernous nerve injury and subsequently treated for 4 weeks with daily gavage feedings of a placebo solution of normal saline and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vs. ICA dissolved in DMSO at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. A separate group underwent a single dose of ICA 10 mg/kg 2 hours prior to functional testing. Functional testing with cavernous nerve stimulation and real-time assessment of intracavernous pressure (ICP) was performed at 4 weeks. After functional testing, penile tissue was procured for immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. In separate experiments, pelvic ganglia were excised from healthy rats and cultured in the presence of ICA, sildenafil, or placebo culture media. Main Outcome Measure.: Ratio of ICP and area under the curve (AUC) to mean arterial pressure (MAP) during cavernous nerve stimulation of subject rodents. We also assayed tissue expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), eNOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), calponin, and apoptosis via immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Differential length of neurite outgrowth was assessed in cultured pelvic ganglia. Results.: Rats treated with low-dose ICA demonstrated significantly higher ICP/MAP and AUC/MAP ratios compared with control and single-dose ICA animals. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were revealing of significantly greater positivity for nNOS and calponin in penile tissues of all rats treated with ICA. ICA led to significantly greater neurite length in cultured specimens of pelvic ganglia. Conclusion.: ICA may have neurotrophic effects in addition to known phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibiting effects. Shindel AW, Xin Z-C, Lin G, Fandel TM, Huang YC, Banie L, Breyer BN, Garcia MM, Lin C-S, and Lue TF. Erectogenic and neurotrophic effects of icariin, a purified extract of horny goat weed (Epimedium spp.) in vitro and in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1518-1528
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Sexual Medicine
Volume7
Issue number4 PART 1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Epimedium
Goats
Ganglia
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
Arterial Pressure
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Immunohistochemistry
Dimethyl Sulfoxide
Pressure
Area Under Curve
icariin
In Vitro Techniques
Western Blotting
Placebos
Type 5 Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases
Chinese Traditional Medicine
Erectile Dysfunction
Neurites
Luteinizing Hormone
Sodium Chloride

Keywords

  • Cavernous Nerve Injury
  • Complementary Medicine
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Icariin
  • Neurotrophins
  • Testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Reproductive Medicine

Cite this

Erectogenic and neurotrophic effects of icariin, a purified extract of horny goat weed (Epimedium spp.) in vitro and in vivo. / Shindel, Alan W; Xin, Zhong Chen; Lin, Guiting; Fandel, Thomas M.; Huang, Yun Ching; Banie, Lia; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Garcia, Maurice M.; Lin, Ching Shwun; Lue, Tom F.

In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 4 PART 1, 04.2010, p. 1518-1528.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shindel, AW, Xin, ZC, Lin, G, Fandel, TM, Huang, YC, Banie, L, Breyer, BN, Garcia, MM, Lin, CS & Lue, TF 2010, 'Erectogenic and neurotrophic effects of icariin, a purified extract of horny goat weed (Epimedium spp.) in vitro and in vivo' Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4 PART 1, pp. 1518-1528. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01699.x
Shindel, Alan W ; Xin, Zhong Chen ; Lin, Guiting ; Fandel, Thomas M. ; Huang, Yun Ching ; Banie, Lia ; Breyer, Benjamin N. ; Garcia, Maurice M. ; Lin, Ching Shwun ; Lue, Tom F. / Erectogenic and neurotrophic effects of icariin, a purified extract of horny goat weed (Epimedium spp.) in vitro and in vivo. In: Journal of Sexual Medicine. 2010 ; Vol. 7, No. 4 PART 1. pp. 1518-1528.
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abstract = "Introduction.: Epimedium species (aka horny goat weed) have been utilized for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many years. Icariin (ICA) is the active moiety of Epimedium species. Aim.: To evaluate the penile hemodynamic and tissue effects of ICA in cavernous nerve injured rats. We also studied the in vitro effects of ICA on cultured pelvic ganglia. Methods.: Rats were subjected to cavernous nerve injury and subsequently treated for 4 weeks with daily gavage feedings of a placebo solution of normal saline and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vs. ICA dissolved in DMSO at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. A separate group underwent a single dose of ICA 10 mg/kg 2 hours prior to functional testing. Functional testing with cavernous nerve stimulation and real-time assessment of intracavernous pressure (ICP) was performed at 4 weeks. After functional testing, penile tissue was procured for immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. In separate experiments, pelvic ganglia were excised from healthy rats and cultured in the presence of ICA, sildenafil, or placebo culture media. Main Outcome Measure.: Ratio of ICP and area under the curve (AUC) to mean arterial pressure (MAP) during cavernous nerve stimulation of subject rodents. We also assayed tissue expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), eNOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), calponin, and apoptosis via immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Differential length of neurite outgrowth was assessed in cultured pelvic ganglia. Results.: Rats treated with low-dose ICA demonstrated significantly higher ICP/MAP and AUC/MAP ratios compared with control and single-dose ICA animals. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were revealing of significantly greater positivity for nNOS and calponin in penile tissues of all rats treated with ICA. ICA led to significantly greater neurite length in cultured specimens of pelvic ganglia. Conclusion.: ICA may have neurotrophic effects in addition to known phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibiting effects. Shindel AW, Xin Z-C, Lin G, Fandel TM, Huang YC, Banie L, Breyer BN, Garcia MM, Lin C-S, and Lue TF. Erectogenic and neurotrophic effects of icariin, a purified extract of horny goat weed (Epimedium spp.) in vitro and in vivo.",
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AU - Shindel, Alan W

AU - Xin, Zhong Chen

AU - Lin, Guiting

AU - Fandel, Thomas M.

AU - Huang, Yun Ching

AU - Banie, Lia

AU - Breyer, Benjamin N.

AU - Garcia, Maurice M.

AU - Lin, Ching Shwun

AU - Lue, Tom F.

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N2 - Introduction.: Epimedium species (aka horny goat weed) have been utilized for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many years. Icariin (ICA) is the active moiety of Epimedium species. Aim.: To evaluate the penile hemodynamic and tissue effects of ICA in cavernous nerve injured rats. We also studied the in vitro effects of ICA on cultured pelvic ganglia. Methods.: Rats were subjected to cavernous nerve injury and subsequently treated for 4 weeks with daily gavage feedings of a placebo solution of normal saline and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vs. ICA dissolved in DMSO at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. A separate group underwent a single dose of ICA 10 mg/kg 2 hours prior to functional testing. Functional testing with cavernous nerve stimulation and real-time assessment of intracavernous pressure (ICP) was performed at 4 weeks. After functional testing, penile tissue was procured for immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. In separate experiments, pelvic ganglia were excised from healthy rats and cultured in the presence of ICA, sildenafil, or placebo culture media. Main Outcome Measure.: Ratio of ICP and area under the curve (AUC) to mean arterial pressure (MAP) during cavernous nerve stimulation of subject rodents. We also assayed tissue expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), eNOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), calponin, and apoptosis via immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Differential length of neurite outgrowth was assessed in cultured pelvic ganglia. Results.: Rats treated with low-dose ICA demonstrated significantly higher ICP/MAP and AUC/MAP ratios compared with control and single-dose ICA animals. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were revealing of significantly greater positivity for nNOS and calponin in penile tissues of all rats treated with ICA. ICA led to significantly greater neurite length in cultured specimens of pelvic ganglia. Conclusion.: ICA may have neurotrophic effects in addition to known phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibiting effects. Shindel AW, Xin Z-C, Lin G, Fandel TM, Huang YC, Banie L, Breyer BN, Garcia MM, Lin C-S, and Lue TF. Erectogenic and neurotrophic effects of icariin, a purified extract of horny goat weed (Epimedium spp.) in vitro and in vivo.

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KW - Cavernous Nerve Injury

KW - Complementary Medicine

KW - Erectile Dysfunction

KW - Icariin

KW - Neurotrophins

KW - Testosterone

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