Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis due to Neospora hughesi and equine motor neuron disease in a mule

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Abstract

Case description: A 23-year-old female mule was presented for bilateral ocular abnormalities and an abnormal pelvic limb gait. Clinical findings: Anisocoria, unilateral enophthalmos, medial strabismus, ptosis, pupillary light reflex deficits, and bilateral reticulated pigmentary retinopathy were observed on ophthalmic examination. Neurologic abnormalities included right-sided facial nerve paralysis, extensive symmetric muscle atrophy, and asymmetric pelvic limb ataxia with an abnormal pelvic limb gait. A positive titer (1:40) for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) associated with Neospora hughesi was obtained from cerebrospinal fluid with minimal (<1 red blood cell/μL) blood contamination. Muscle biopsies of the sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle revealed predominantly type I neurogenic muscle atrophy, consistent with a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Treatment and outcome: Treatment included a 2-month course of ponazuril (5 mg/kg PO q24 h), vitamin E (8000 IU PO q24 h), and selenium (2 mg PO q24 h). Clinical improvement was not observed after 2 months although the mule remained stable. Clinical deterioration was reported upon discontinuation of the ponazuril after a 2-month course. Conclusion: Concurrent disease with EPM associated with N. hughesi and EMND should be considered in cases demonstrating cranial nerve abnormalities, pronounced symmetric muscle atrophy, unusual asymmetric gait abnormalities, and reticulated pigmentary retinopathy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-265
Number of pages7
JournalVeterinary Ophthalmology
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2010

Fingerprint

Neospora hughesi
equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
Neospora
Encephalomyelitis
mules
Motor Neuron Disease
muscular atrophy
Muscular Atrophy
Equidae
gait
motor neurons
limbs (animal)
Gait
Horses
retinal diseases
Retinitis Pigmentosa
horses
nerve tissue
Extremities
Anisocoria

Keywords

  • Horse
  • Neurologic disease
  • Pigmentary retinopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis due to Neospora hughesi and equine motor neuron disease in a mule",
abstract = "Case description: A 23-year-old female mule was presented for bilateral ocular abnormalities and an abnormal pelvic limb gait. Clinical findings: Anisocoria, unilateral enophthalmos, medial strabismus, ptosis, pupillary light reflex deficits, and bilateral reticulated pigmentary retinopathy were observed on ophthalmic examination. Neurologic abnormalities included right-sided facial nerve paralysis, extensive symmetric muscle atrophy, and asymmetric pelvic limb ataxia with an abnormal pelvic limb gait. A positive titer (1:40) for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) associated with Neospora hughesi was obtained from cerebrospinal fluid with minimal (<1 red blood cell/μL) blood contamination. Muscle biopsies of the sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle revealed predominantly type I neurogenic muscle atrophy, consistent with a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Treatment and outcome: Treatment included a 2-month course of ponazuril (5 mg/kg PO q24 h), vitamin E (8000 IU PO q24 h), and selenium (2 mg PO q24 h). Clinical improvement was not observed after 2 months although the mule remained stable. Clinical deterioration was reported upon discontinuation of the ponazuril after a 2-month course. Conclusion: Concurrent disease with EPM associated with N. hughesi and EMND should be considered in cases demonstrating cranial nerve abnormalities, pronounced symmetric muscle atrophy, unusual asymmetric gait abnormalities, and reticulated pigmentary retinopathy.",
keywords = "Horse, Neurologic disease, Pigmentary retinopathy",
author = "Finno, {Carrie J} and Eaton, {Joshua Seth} and Aleman, {Monica R} and Hollingsworth, {Steven R}",
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T1 - Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis due to Neospora hughesi and equine motor neuron disease in a mule

AU - Finno, Carrie J

AU - Eaton, Joshua Seth

AU - Aleman, Monica R

AU - Hollingsworth, Steven R

PY - 2010/7

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N2 - Case description: A 23-year-old female mule was presented for bilateral ocular abnormalities and an abnormal pelvic limb gait. Clinical findings: Anisocoria, unilateral enophthalmos, medial strabismus, ptosis, pupillary light reflex deficits, and bilateral reticulated pigmentary retinopathy were observed on ophthalmic examination. Neurologic abnormalities included right-sided facial nerve paralysis, extensive symmetric muscle atrophy, and asymmetric pelvic limb ataxia with an abnormal pelvic limb gait. A positive titer (1:40) for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) associated with Neospora hughesi was obtained from cerebrospinal fluid with minimal (<1 red blood cell/μL) blood contamination. Muscle biopsies of the sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle revealed predominantly type I neurogenic muscle atrophy, consistent with a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Treatment and outcome: Treatment included a 2-month course of ponazuril (5 mg/kg PO q24 h), vitamin E (8000 IU PO q24 h), and selenium (2 mg PO q24 h). Clinical improvement was not observed after 2 months although the mule remained stable. Clinical deterioration was reported upon discontinuation of the ponazuril after a 2-month course. Conclusion: Concurrent disease with EPM associated with N. hughesi and EMND should be considered in cases demonstrating cranial nerve abnormalities, pronounced symmetric muscle atrophy, unusual asymmetric gait abnormalities, and reticulated pigmentary retinopathy.

AB - Case description: A 23-year-old female mule was presented for bilateral ocular abnormalities and an abnormal pelvic limb gait. Clinical findings: Anisocoria, unilateral enophthalmos, medial strabismus, ptosis, pupillary light reflex deficits, and bilateral reticulated pigmentary retinopathy were observed on ophthalmic examination. Neurologic abnormalities included right-sided facial nerve paralysis, extensive symmetric muscle atrophy, and asymmetric pelvic limb ataxia with an abnormal pelvic limb gait. A positive titer (1:40) for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) associated with Neospora hughesi was obtained from cerebrospinal fluid with minimal (<1 red blood cell/μL) blood contamination. Muscle biopsies of the sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle revealed predominantly type I neurogenic muscle atrophy, consistent with a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Treatment and outcome: Treatment included a 2-month course of ponazuril (5 mg/kg PO q24 h), vitamin E (8000 IU PO q24 h), and selenium (2 mg PO q24 h). Clinical improvement was not observed after 2 months although the mule remained stable. Clinical deterioration was reported upon discontinuation of the ponazuril after a 2-month course. Conclusion: Concurrent disease with EPM associated with N. hughesi and EMND should be considered in cases demonstrating cranial nerve abnormalities, pronounced symmetric muscle atrophy, unusual asymmetric gait abnormalities, and reticulated pigmentary retinopathy.

KW - Horse

KW - Neurologic disease

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