Equine influenza.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


Influenza continues to be one of the most important diseases of horses despite the availability and widespread use of equine influenza vaccines for almost 30 years. In recent years, infection with the influenza A/equine/2 subtype has become endemic in the equine populations of North America, Europe, and Scandinavia. Continued antigenic drift of field virus has compromised the efficacy of vaccines, most of which contain antigens prepared from influenza viruses isolated more than 10 years ago. This article reviews the history, virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of influenza in horses and emphasizes recent developments in diagnostic methods and vaccine technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)257-282
Number of pages26
JournalThe Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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