Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to measure specific IgG titers in cattle has proven useful. Serology can be used to assess vaccine responses and infection rates, to detect carriers, and to aid in epidemiologic studies. The objective of this study was to assess cross-reactions using sera from cattle vaccinated with different Salmonella serogroups. ELISA plates using lipopolysaccharide from serogroup B, C1, C3, D1 or E1 as the plate antigens were tested. LPS was extracted from Salmonella typhimurium (Serogroup B; somatic antigens 01, 4, 12), S. montevideo (C1; 06, 7), S. kentucky (C3; 08, 20), S. dublin (D1; 01, 9, 12) and S. anatum (E1; 03, 10) using the Westphal method. Fifteen cows were found to be seronegative for all 5 of these serogroup antigens. Each cow was then vaccinated 3 times at 2-week intervals with a killed Salmonella bacterin. The 15 different serotypes used for vaccination were chosen to represent a wide array of Salmonella serogroups with a wide array of somatic “O” antigens expressed, including somatic antigens 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, and 27. With each antigen tested, the highest ELISA titers were seen with sera from cattle vaccinated with homologous O antigens, indicating that reactions were highly O antigen-specific. Some cross reactions between serogroups sharing one O factor antigen were found; these titers were lower than those found with homologous serogroups sharing 2 or more antigens. Only serum from the cow vaccinated with S. anatum (group E; antigens 03, 10) cross-reacted at a low titer with group C1 (O somatic antigens 6, 7) and D1 (O somatic antigens 1, 9, 12) plate antigens, with which no somatic antigens were shared. We conclude from these results that Salmonella serology using LPS antigens is highly O antigen-specific and predictable.
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