Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of late-diagnosis incident fibroids in the Study of Women's Health across the Nation (SWAN)

Jason Y Y Wong, Po Yin Chang, Ellen B Gold, Wesley O. Johnson, Jennifer S. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: To assess the longitudinal relationship of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during midlife, and its interaction with active smoking, with the risk of late-diagnosis incident uterine fibroids during the menopausal transition. Design: Thirteen-year prospective cohort study. Setting: Not applicable. Patient(s): Community-based, multiracial/ethnic cohort of 2,575 women aged 42 to 52 years at baseline, undergoing the menopausal transition. Intervention(s): Questionnaire and blood draws. Main Outcome Measure(s): Discrete-time proportional odds models were used to estimate the conditional odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of incident fibroids, adjusted for menopausal status, race/ethnicity, study site, age, education, estradiol levels, sex hormone use, body mass index, timing of blood draw, age at menarche, alcohol use, and smoking status and pack-years. Result(s): As part of SWAN, at each near-annual study visit, ETS exposure, smoking, and fibroid occurrence were self-reported via questionnaire, and blood draws were collected. Women who were exposed to ETS (≥1 person-hour/week) had 1.28 (95% CI, 1.03, 1.60) times the adjusted odds of incident fibroids in the ensuing year compared the unexposed. The odds were elevated in never smokers (adjusted OR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.70) and former smokers (adjusted OR 2.57; 95% CI, 1.05, 7.23). Conclusion(s): In midlife, ETS exposure was associated with an increased risk of late-diagnosis incident fibroids in women undergoing the menopausal transition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalFertility and Sterility
StateAccepted/In press - Apr 4 2016


  • Environmental tobacco smoke
  • Leiomyomas
  • Longitudinal study
  • Secondhand smoke
  • Uterine fibroids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Reproductive Medicine


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