Environmental mechanisms of orofacial clefts

Michael A. Garland, Kurt Reynolds, Chengji J. Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are among the most common birth defects and impart a significant burden on afflicted individuals and their families. It is increasingly understood that many nonsyndromic OFCs are a consequence of extrinsic factors, genetic susceptibilities, and interactions of the two. Therefore, understanding the environmental mechanisms of OFCs is important in the prevention of future cases. This review examines the molecular mechanisms associated with environmental factors that either protect against or increase the risk of OFCs. We focus on essential metabolic pathways, environmental signaling mechanisms, detoxification pathways, behavioral risk factors, and biological hazards that may disrupt orofacial development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBirth Defects Research
StateAccepted/In press - 2020


  • behavioral exposure
  • drinking alcohol
  • environmental signaling pathways
  • folate
  • occupational exposure
  • orofacial clefts
  • pathogenic factors
  • retinoid acid
  • smoking tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Embryology
  • Toxicology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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