Environmental enrichment alters neurotrophin levels after fetal alcohol exposure in rats

Elizabeth A. Parks, Andrew P. McMechan, John H. Hannigan, Robert F Berman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure causes abnormal brain development, leading to behavioral deficits, some of which can be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. As both environmental enrichment and prenatal alcohol exposure can individually alter neurotrophin expression, we studied the interaction of prenatal alcohol and postweaning environmental enrichment on brain neurotrophin levels in rats. Methods: Pregnant rats received alcohol by gavage, 0, 4, or 6 g/kg/d (Zero, Low, or High groups), or no treatment (Naïve group), on gestational days 8 to 20. After weaning on postnatal day 21, offspring were housed for 6 weeks in Isolated, Social, or Enriched conditions. Levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were then measured in frontal cortex, occipital cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar vermis. Results: Prenatal alcohol exposure increased NGF levels in frontal cortex (High-dose group) and cerebellar vermis (High- and Low-dose groups); increased BDNF in frontal cortex, occipital cortex and hippocampus (Low-dose groups), and increased NT-3 in hippocampus and cerebellar vermis (High-dose). Environmental enrichment resulted in lower NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 levels in occipital cortex and lower NGF in frontal cortex. The only significant interaction between prenatal alcohol treatment and environment was in cerebellar vermis where NT-3 levels were higher for enriched animals after prenatal alcohol exposure, but not for animals housed under Isolated or Social conditions. Conclusions: Both prenatal alcohol exposure and postweaning housing conditions alter brain neurotrophin levels, but the effects appear to be largely independent. Although environmental enrichment can improve functional outcomes, these results do not provide strong support for the hypothesis that rearing in a complex environment ameliorates prenatal alcohol effects on brain neurotrophin levels in rats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1741-1751
Number of pages11
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume32
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2008

Fingerprint

Nerve Growth Factors
Rats
Alcohols
Neurotrophin 3
Frontal Lobe
Nerve Growth Factor
Occipital Lobe
Brain
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Hippocampus
Animals
Social Conditions
Weaning
Cerebellar Vermis

Keywords

  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
  • Environmental enrichment
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Nerve growth factor
  • Neurotrophin-3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Environmental enrichment alters neurotrophin levels after fetal alcohol exposure in rats. / Parks, Elizabeth A.; McMechan, Andrew P.; Hannigan, John H.; Berman, Robert F.

In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 32, No. 10, 10.2008, p. 1741-1751.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Parks, Elizabeth A. ; McMechan, Andrew P. ; Hannigan, John H. ; Berman, Robert F. / Environmental enrichment alters neurotrophin levels after fetal alcohol exposure in rats. In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2008 ; Vol. 32, No. 10. pp. 1741-1751.
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AU - Parks, Elizabeth A.

AU - McMechan, Andrew P.

AU - Hannigan, John H.

AU - Berman, Robert F

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N2 - Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure causes abnormal brain development, leading to behavioral deficits, some of which can be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. As both environmental enrichment and prenatal alcohol exposure can individually alter neurotrophin expression, we studied the interaction of prenatal alcohol and postweaning environmental enrichment on brain neurotrophin levels in rats. Methods: Pregnant rats received alcohol by gavage, 0, 4, or 6 g/kg/d (Zero, Low, or High groups), or no treatment (Naïve group), on gestational days 8 to 20. After weaning on postnatal day 21, offspring were housed for 6 weeks in Isolated, Social, or Enriched conditions. Levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were then measured in frontal cortex, occipital cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar vermis. Results: Prenatal alcohol exposure increased NGF levels in frontal cortex (High-dose group) and cerebellar vermis (High- and Low-dose groups); increased BDNF in frontal cortex, occipital cortex and hippocampus (Low-dose groups), and increased NT-3 in hippocampus and cerebellar vermis (High-dose). Environmental enrichment resulted in lower NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 levels in occipital cortex and lower NGF in frontal cortex. The only significant interaction between prenatal alcohol treatment and environment was in cerebellar vermis where NT-3 levels were higher for enriched animals after prenatal alcohol exposure, but not for animals housed under Isolated or Social conditions. Conclusions: Both prenatal alcohol exposure and postweaning housing conditions alter brain neurotrophin levels, but the effects appear to be largely independent. Although environmental enrichment can improve functional outcomes, these results do not provide strong support for the hypothesis that rearing in a complex environment ameliorates prenatal alcohol effects on brain neurotrophin levels in rats.

AB - Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure causes abnormal brain development, leading to behavioral deficits, some of which can be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. As both environmental enrichment and prenatal alcohol exposure can individually alter neurotrophin expression, we studied the interaction of prenatal alcohol and postweaning environmental enrichment on brain neurotrophin levels in rats. Methods: Pregnant rats received alcohol by gavage, 0, 4, or 6 g/kg/d (Zero, Low, or High groups), or no treatment (Naïve group), on gestational days 8 to 20. After weaning on postnatal day 21, offspring were housed for 6 weeks in Isolated, Social, or Enriched conditions. Levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were then measured in frontal cortex, occipital cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar vermis. Results: Prenatal alcohol exposure increased NGF levels in frontal cortex (High-dose group) and cerebellar vermis (High- and Low-dose groups); increased BDNF in frontal cortex, occipital cortex and hippocampus (Low-dose groups), and increased NT-3 in hippocampus and cerebellar vermis (High-dose). Environmental enrichment resulted in lower NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 levels in occipital cortex and lower NGF in frontal cortex. The only significant interaction between prenatal alcohol treatment and environment was in cerebellar vermis where NT-3 levels were higher for enriched animals after prenatal alcohol exposure, but not for animals housed under Isolated or Social conditions. Conclusions: Both prenatal alcohol exposure and postweaning housing conditions alter brain neurotrophin levels, but the effects appear to be largely independent. Although environmental enrichment can improve functional outcomes, these results do not provide strong support for the hypothesis that rearing in a complex environment ameliorates prenatal alcohol effects on brain neurotrophin levels in rats.

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KW - Fetal alcohol syndrome

KW - Nerve growth factor

KW - Neurotrophin-3

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