A cross-sectional study was conducted in Costa Rican cattle to identify host risk factors and endemic foci for vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey (VSV NJ) and indiana (VSV IND) serotype The effects of age, gender, breed, residence at specific levels of mean annual rainfall, temperature, relative evapotranspiration potential, and elevation on the risk of seropositivity for VSV NJ and VSV IND were evaluated using a random-effects logistic-regression model which adjusted for overdispersion between herds. A total of 2232 cattle from 348 farms located throughout Costa Rica were examined. Total seroprevalences of 46% and 21% were found for VSV NJ and VSV IND, respectively. When environmental risk factors were considered, cattle residing in areas between 500 and 1500 m (pre-montane or lower montane moist forest) had a higher risk of seropositivity to VSV BNJ compared with cattle living at lower elevations (odds ratio (OR) ≥ 3.6). In addition, cattle residing at 0-500 m and less than 2 m of annual raifall (tropical dry forest) were also at a higher risk of seropositivity to VSV NJ compared with cattle living at other regions (OR ≥ 10). This evidence suggests that at least two transmission cycles may exist for VSV NJ: one located at a higher elevation and the other found at regions of lower elevation and lower rainfall. These regions may indicate the location of different arthropod vectors of viral reservoirs. Antibody prevalence increased with age, suggesting a relationship between lenght of residence in an endemic area and the likelihood of being seropositive to VSV NJ. No factors were associated with VSV IND seropositivity. The lack of environmental associations with VSV IND seropositivity suggested that the transmission cycle for this serotype is different than that for SV NJ.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Animal Science and Zoology