The goal of this study was to morphologically characterize a ligated ileal loop model of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infection in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and to verify the occurrence of Salmonella-induced cell death in vivo. Eight adult healthy male rhesus macaques were used for ligated ileal loop surgery. Four macaques had been intravenously inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac251. Ileal ligated loops were inoculated with wild-type (WT) S. Typhimurium strain IR715 (ATCC14028 nalr), an isogenic noninvasive mutant strain (ATCC14028 nalr ΔsipAΔsopABDE2), or sterile Luria Bertani broth. Loops were surgically removed at 2, 5, and 8 hours post-inoculation (hpi). Intestinal samples were processed for histopathology, immunohistochemistry for detecting Salmonella, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL), and transmission electron microscopy. Combined histopathology scores were similar between SIV-infected and control macaques. As expected, the invasion-deficient mutant was less pathogenic than WT S. Typhimurium. Neutrophil infiltrate in the intestinal mucosa correlated with bacterial loads (r = 0.7148; P <.0001) and fluid accumulation (r = 0.6019; P <.0001) in the lumen of the intestinal loops. Immunolabeled WT S. Typhimurium was observed in the epithelium and lamina propria at the tip of the villi at 2 hpi, progressing toward deeper lamina propria at 5-8 hpi. Most TUNEL-positive cells localized to the lamina propria, and some had morphological features of macrophages. Ultrastructurally, bacteria were observed intracellularly in the lamina propria as well as within apoptotic bodies. This study provides morphological evidence of Salmonella-induced cell death in vivo in a relevant nonhuman primate model.
- rhesus monkeys
- simian immunodeficiency virus
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