Context.—Delayed recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) results in poor outcomes in military and civilian burn-trauma care. Poor predictive ability of urine output (UOP) and creatinine contribute to the delayed recognition of AKI. Objective.—To determine the impact of point-of-care (POC) AKI biomarker enhanced by machine learning (ML) algorithms in burn-injured and trauma patients. Design.—We conducted a 2-phased study to develop and validate a novel POC device for measuring neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and creatinine from blood samples. In phase I, 40 remnant plasma samples were used to evaluate the analytic performance of the POC device. Next, phase II enrolled 125 adults with either burns that were 20% or greater of total body surface area or nonburn trauma with suspicion of AKI for clinical validation. We applied an automated ML approach to develop models predicting AKI, using a combination of NGAL, creatinine, and/or UOP as features. Results.—Point-of-care NGAL (mean [SD] bias: 9.8 [38.5] ng/mL, P ¼ .10) and creatinine results (mean [SD] bias: 0.28 [0.30] mg/dL, P ¼ .18) were comparable to the reference method. NGAL was an independent predictor of AKI (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.08–5.20; P ¼ .01). The optimal ML model achieved an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 96%, 92.3%, and 97.7%, respectively, with NGAL, creatinine, and UOP as features. Area under the receiver operator curve was 0.96. Conclusions.—Point-of-care NGAL testing is feasible and produces results comparable to reference methods. Machine learning enhanced the predictive performance of AKI biomarkers including NGAL and was superior to the current techniques.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Medical Laboratory Technology