Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Enhancers are regulatory DNA sequences of gene expression that augment the activity of a promoter in an orientation-, position-, and distance-independent manner. These sequences play a key role in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression in higher eukaryotes. Classically, trans-acting gene regulatory proteins are thought to bind to enhancers in order to impact transcriptional activity of their associated promoters. However, more recently, evidence has emerged that points to other diverse mechanisms by which enhancers may exert their effects on gene expression, including through epigenetic modifications, alterations of chromatin structure, and noncoding RNAs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBrenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages2
ISBN (Electronic)9780080961569
ISBN (Print)9780123749840
StatePublished - Feb 27 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Activator
  • DNA looping
  • Gene expression
  • Promoter
  • Transcription factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)


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