Enhanced hippocampal noradrenaline and serotonin release in galanin-overexpressing mice after repeated forced swimming test

Takashi Yoshitake, Fu Hua Wang, Eugenia Kuteeva, Kristina Holmberg, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Jacqueline Crawley, Robert Steiner, Tamas Bartfai, Sven Ove Ogren, Tomas Hökfelt, Jan Kehr

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55 Scopus citations


Basal and forced swimming (FS) stress-induced release of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) were determined by in vivo microdialysis in the ventral hippocampus of mice overexpressing galanin under the platelet-derived growth factor B promoter (GalOE/P) or under the dopamine β-hydroxylase promoter (GaIOE/D) (only NA). WT mice served as controls. Intraventricular infusion of galanin significantly reduced basal extracellular NA in WT mice and in GalOE/P mice (albeit less so). Microdialysis sampling during a 10-min FS showed that NA and 5-HT release were elevated to 213% and 156%, respectively, in the GalOE/P group, whereas in the WT group the increases were only 127% and 119%, respectively. The second (repeated) 10-min FS (RFS) caused a marked enhancement of NA and 5-HT release in the GalOE/P mice to 344% and 275%, respectively. However, the RFS caused only a 192% increase of extracellular NA levels in the GalOE/D mice. Pretreatment with the putative peptidergic galanin receptor antagonist M35 almost completely blocked the elevation of NA and 5-HT levels in the GalOE/P after RFS. These results suggest that the NA and 5-HT hippocampal afferents in GalOE/P mice are hypersensitive to both conditioned and unconditioned stressful stimuli, such as FS, and that this effect is mediated by galanin receptors. The present findings support a role of galanin in the regulation of release of NA and 5-HT, two neurotransmitters involved in mood control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)354-359
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • 5-hydroxytryptamine
  • Hippocampus affective disorders
  • Microdialysis
  • Transgenic mice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General


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