Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) functions as cell attachment receptor for a wide range of human enteroviruses. The Kuykendall prototype strain of coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21) attaches to DAF but requires interactions with intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) to infect cells. We show here that a bioselected variant of CVA21 (CVA21-DAFv) generated by multiple passages in DAF-expressing, ICAM-1-negative rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells acquired the capacity to induce rapid and complete lysis of ICAM-1-deficient cells while retaining the capacity to bind ICAM-1. CVA21-DAFv binding to DAF on RD cells mediated lytic infection and was inhibited by either antibody blockade with a specific anti-DAF SCR1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) or soluble human DAF. Despite being bioselected in RD cells, CVA21-DAFv was able to lytically infect an additional ICAM-1-negative cancer cell line via DAF interactions alone. The finding that radiolabeled CVA21-DAFv virions are less readily eluted from surface-expressed DAF than are parental CVA21 virions during a competitive epitope challenge by an anti-DAF SCR1 MAb suggests that interactions between CVA21-DAFv and DAF are of higher affinity than those of the parental strain. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the capsid-coding region of the CVA21-DAFv revealed the presence of two amino acid substitutions in capsid protein VP3 (R96H and E101A), possibly conferring the enhanced DAF-binding phenotype of CVA21-DAFv. These residues are predicted to be embedded at the interface of VP1, VP2, and VP3 and are postulated to enhance the affinity of DAF interaction occurring outside the capsid canyon. Taken together, the data clearly demonstrate an enhanced DAF-using phenotype and expanded receptor utilization of CVA21-DAFv compared to the parental strain, further highlighting that capsid interactions with DAF alone facilitate rapid multicycle lytic cell infection.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Virology|
|State||Published - Nov 2004|
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