Engagement and Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Quitline Intervention in a Thoracic Surgery Clinic

Mollie M. Mustoe, James M. Clark, Timothy T. Huynh, Elisa K. Tong, Terri P. Wolf, Lisa M. Brown, David T. Cooke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Importance: Smoking quitline programs effectively promote smoking cessation in outpatient primary care settings. Objective: To examine the factors associated with smoking quitline engagement and smoking cessation among patients undergoing thoracic surgery who consented to a quitline electronic referral. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2018, among 111 active smoking patients referred to the quitline from a thoracic surgery outpatient clinic visit. Patients were divided into operative and nonoperative cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were engagement rates in the quitline program and successful smoking cessation. Secondary outcomes were self-reported point prevalence abstinence at 1 month and 6 months after the smoking quit date. Results: Of 111 patients (62 men; mean [SD] age, 61.8 [11.2] years) who had a quitline referral, 58 (52%) underwent surgery, and 32 of these 58 patients (55%) participated in the program. Of the 53 nonoperative patients (48%), 24 (45%) participated in the program. In the operative cohort, there was no difference in the smoking cessation rate between quitline participants and nonparticipants (21 of 32 [66%] vs 16 of 6 [62%]; P =.79) or in point prevalence abstinence at 1 month (23 of 32 [72%] vs 14 of 25 [56%]; P =.27) or 6 months (14 of 28 [50%] vs 6 of 18 [33%]; P =.36). Similarly, in the nonoperative cohort, there was no difference in the smoking cessation rate between quitline participants and nonparticipants (8 of 24 [33%] vs 11 of 29 [38%]; P =.78) or in point prevalence abstinence at 1 month (7 of 24 [29%] vs 8 of 27 [30%]; P =.99) or 6 months (6 of 23 [26%] vs 6 of 25 [24%]; P =.99). Regardless of quitline participation, operative patients had a 1.8-fold higher proportion of successful smoking cessation compared with nonoperative patients (37 of 58 [64%] vs 19 of 53 [36%]; P =.004) as well as a 2.2-fold higher proportion of 1-month point prevalence abstinence (37 of 57 [65%] vs 15 of 51 [29%]; P <.001) and a 1.8-fold higher proportion of 6-month point prevalence abstinence (20 of 45 [44%] vs 12 of 48 [25%]; P =.05). Having surgery doubled the odds of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.06-5.64; P =.04) and quitline engagement tripled the odds of remaining smoke free at 6 months (odds ratio, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.03-12.38; P =.04). Conclusions and Relevance: Patients undergoing thoracic surgery were nearly twice as likely to quit smoking as those who did not have an operation, and smoking quitline participation further augmented point prevalence abstinence. Improved smoking cessation rates, even among nonoperative patients, were associated with appropriate outpatient counseling and intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJAMA Surgery
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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