Energy expenditure and restriction of energy intake: Could energy restriction alter energy expenditure in companion animals?

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29 Scopus citations

Abstract

The treatment of obesity in companion animals frequently focuses on restriction of energy intake. One important question with this treatment is whether dietary energy restriction (ER) produces a sustained decrease in mass-adjusted energy expenditure (EE), which prevents further weight loss and promotes rapid regain of body weight during lapses in dietary ER. This review summarizes studies that investigated the effects of dietary ER on EE at the whole-animal, organ, and cellular level. Whole-animal studies indicate that long-term dietary ER either decreases or does not affect mass-adjusted EE. The reason for this discrepancy between studies is not entirely clear, although analysis of data pooled from multiple studies suggests that a reduction in mass-adjusted EE with long-term ER would be observed if the sample size were sufficiently large and appropriate methods were used to adjust EE for body size. At the organ level, attempts were made to determine whether alterations in organ mass can entirely explain changes in EE with dietary ER. However, these studies were not conclusive, and it remains to be determined whether changes in EE exceed those that would be predicted from ER-induced alterations in organ mass. At the cellular level, there is evidence that dietary ER may induce sustained decreases in substrate oxidation, mitochondrial proton, and Na +-K+-ATPase activity in at least some tissues. These results are consistent with the idea that dietary ER may induce decreases in cellular EE. However, future studies integrating measurements at the whole-animal, organ, and cellular level will be required to determine definitively whether dietary ER produces sustained decreases in tissue or cellular EE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume136
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2006

Keywords

  • Body composition
  • Energy restriction
  • Metabolic rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

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