Each of the simulators described attempts to achieve an accurate simulation of endoscopy in human patients. Mechanical models are potentially useful for the development of hand-eye coordination but have been criticized for a lack of realism. Realistic computer simulators will likely become available in the near future. Currently, live animal models provide the most accurate simulation but are limited by anatomic differences compared to humans and the inability to simulate pathology. Ex vivo animal models allow some simulation of pathological states. Studies demonstrating benefit are awaited.
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