Children have been slow to benefit from the improvements in stone therapy. Despite the success of less invasive techniques, open surgery for pediatric urolithiasis is still commonly practiced. The authors' goal was to evaluate the indications, efficacy, and complications of endourologic surgery in the treatment of pediatric urolithiasis. They reviewed the treatment of 53 children who had upper tract calculi. Open nephro- and ureterolithotomy were avoided in all cases. The management of 25 children whose stones were not amenable to extracorporeal shock wave lithotriopsy is presented. Seventeen children (19 stones) were treated with miniature ureteroscopes and lasertripsy. Only one (6%) of the patients required ureteral dilation, and only five (26%) needed a postoperative internal stent. Eight children with large renal calculi were treated percutaneously, without transfusion, complication, or evidence of persistent renal damage. All 25 patients were rendered stone-free. The hospital stay was shorter and secondary procedures were less common in comparison to other series of endoscopic lithotripsy. With significant experience in adult endourology and proper instrumentation, one can apply the same techniques to children and achieve equal if not greater benefit. Nephrolithiasis in children is uncommon and should be managed in an institution where endourologists and multiple treatment modalities are available.
- percutaneous nephrostomy
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