Significant orbital trauma can result in orbital floor fractures with subsequent prolapse of the orbital contents into the paranasal sinuses. Prolapse of the periorbita can result in extraocular muscle entrapment, diplopia, enophthalmos, and even visual loss. Management of orbital floor fractures traditionally has been accomplished through transconjunctival and subciliary incisions. These approaches provide adequate visualization and cosmetically acceptable scars. Unfortunately, post-operative lid malposition can occur in a small percentage of cases. Another limitation is easy visibility of the posterior orbit, which often is obscured by prolapsed orbital fat. In light of these limitations, some surgeons have begun to evaluate an endoscopic approach to orbital floor fractures. The endoscopic approach offers a hidden incision, improved fracture visualization, and avoidance of post-operative eyelid malposition. This article reviews the indications, technique, and potential complications of endoscopic orbital blow-out fracture repair.
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