Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

J. G. Lee, Joseph Leung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations


Widely available endoscopic techniques are successful in clearing bile duct stones in more than 95% of cases. Both electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy are effective for fragmenting giant stones; however, these methods are not widely available and require direct visual control. Patients who fail mechanical lithotripsy should be considered for referral to specialized centers for electrohydraulic or laser lithotripsy or surgery. In others, long-term endoscopic stenting is a viable alternative.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-55
Number of pages13
JournalGastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Gastroenterology

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