Endometrial hyperplasia and mineralization in zoo felids treated with melengestrol acetate contraceptives.

L. Munson, Ian Gardner, R. J. Mason, L. M. Chassy, U. S. Seal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


Melengestrol acetate (MGA) contraceptives are widely used in zoo felids to regulate fertility and may have deleterious effects on endometrial health. To determine whether MGA exposure was associated with endometrial disease, the genital tracts of 212 zoo felids (99 MGA treated and 113 control) representing 23 species were evaluated. Adenomatous and cystic hyperplasia were prevalent in both MGA-treated (85%) and control (61%) groups, and the risk of developing these lesions increased with age. Treatment with MGA further increased the risk of developing advanced hyperplasia regardless of dose, and treatment for >72 months significantly elevated that risk, whereas parous animals had a lower risk. Endometrial polyps, fibrosis, adenomyosis, and hydrometra occurred in both MGA-treated and control animals. MGA treatment was associated with an increased risk of hydrometra and mineralization but not of adenomyosis, polyps, or fibrosis after adjusting for advanced hyperplasia. Acute or chronic endometritis were associated with advanced hyperplasia but not with MGA treatment. These results indicate that proliferative and inflammatory endometrial lesions are common spontaneous diseases in zoo cats, and MGA contraceptives increase the risk of some diseases. The association of MGA with endometrial lesions that could impair fertility should be considered when using this contraceptive in genetically valuable felids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-427
Number of pages9
JournalVeterinary Pathology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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