As we gain a greater understanding of acne pathogenesis, both new agents as well as new uses for established drugs are being considered for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Multiple clinical trials assessing new formulations or combinations of established acne treatments have been conducted, and novel uses of antimicrobials such as modified diallyl disulfide oxide and nitric oxide are being assessed in clinical trials. There are also a multitude of new therapies currently being studied that target the inflammatory cascade of acne pathogenesis, including sebosuppressive and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, and small molecule inhibitors targeting sebaceous glands and enzymes, among others. Laser and light therapy is also being modified for the treatment of acne through combination methods with metal nanoshells and vacuum assistance. Probiotics have gained popularity in medicine as greater knowledge of the microbiome and its effects on multiple organ systems is being elucidated. Studies describing the positive effects of certain ammonia-oxidizing bacterial strains in the regulation of the skin’s inflammatory response are ongoing. Therapies for acne are constantly evolving and current gold-standard acne therapy may be supplemented with novel treatment modalities in the near future.
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