Recent decades have seen a dramatic increase in ocular imaging technologies—both for the anterior and posterior segments. This has been largely the result of increased computer processing power as applied to hardware control and data analysis. For example, the theoretical basis for ocular coherence tomography (OCT) was developed by Michelson in the nineteenth century, but only recently, thanks to computers, lasers, and electronic control circuitry, has it become a practical tool in the clinical and for toxicological studies. In the aggregate, the use of advanced imaging may be expected to improve the drug development process by providing high-quality and clinically relevant data, which enable earlier and more informed decision making at the preclinical stage of drug development. This accompanied with gains in efficient use of resources can reduce the overall time and cost required to bring a new drug to market. In this chapter, we review the capabilities and limitations of advanced ocular imaging and diagnostic tools that are commercially available and appropriate for inclusion in the design and execution of preclinical programs in ocular drug development.