Emerging concepts in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Prasanth N Surampudi, Jennifer John-Kalarickal, Vivian A. Fonseca

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

30 Scopus citations

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disorder. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and a relative insulin secretion defect. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has risen worldwide in large part because of an increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The underlying pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus are still being elucidated. Recent advances in diabetes research have helped us to gain a better understanding about insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects. The evolving understanding about the influence of the incretin effect, insulin signal transduction, adipose tissue, intra-islet cell communication, and inflammation is changing the way in which we view type 2 diabetes mellitus. This new understanding will eventually provide us with new treatment approaches to help patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus. This article gives a review of the current and emerging concepts of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)216-226
Number of pages11
JournalMount Sinai Journal of Medicine
Volume76
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • β-cell dysfunction
  • Hepatic glucose output
  • Incretin effect
  • Inflammation
  • Insulin resistance
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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