Emerging concepts in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Prasanth N Surampudi, Jennifer John-Kalarickal, Vivian A. Fonseca

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disorder. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and a relative insulin secretion defect. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has risen worldwide in large part because of an increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The underlying pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus are still being elucidated. Recent advances in diabetes research have helped us to gain a better understanding about insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects. The evolving understanding about the influence of the incretin effect, insulin signal transduction, adipose tissue, intra-islet cell communication, and inflammation is changing the way in which we view type 2 diabetes mellitus. This new understanding will eventually provide us with new treatment approaches to help patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus. This article gives a review of the current and emerging concepts of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)216-226
Number of pages11
JournalMount Sinai Journal of Medicine
Volume76
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin
Insulin Resistance
Sedentary Lifestyle
Incretins
Diabetes Complications
Islets of Langerhans
Cell Communication
Hyperglycemia
Adipose Tissue
Signal Transduction
Obesity
Inflammation
Research

Keywords

  • β-cell dysfunction
  • Hepatic glucose output
  • Incretin effect
  • Inflammation
  • Insulin resistance
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Emerging concepts in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. / Surampudi, Prasanth N; John-Kalarickal, Jennifer; Fonseca, Vivian A.

In: Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, Vol. 76, No. 3, 2009, p. 216-226.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Surampudi, Prasanth N ; John-Kalarickal, Jennifer ; Fonseca, Vivian A. / Emerging concepts in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine. 2009 ; Vol. 76, No. 3. pp. 216-226.
@article{9235400e6d8d4eb6801418d507587010,
title = "Emerging concepts in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus",
abstract = "Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disorder. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and a relative insulin secretion defect. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has risen worldwide in large part because of an increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The underlying pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus are still being elucidated. Recent advances in diabetes research have helped us to gain a better understanding about insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects. The evolving understanding about the influence of the incretin effect, insulin signal transduction, adipose tissue, intra-islet cell communication, and inflammation is changing the way in which we view type 2 diabetes mellitus. This new understanding will eventually provide us with new treatment approaches to help patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus. This article gives a review of the current and emerging concepts of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.",
keywords = "β-cell dysfunction, Hepatic glucose output, Incretin effect, Inflammation, Insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes mellitus",
author = "Surampudi, {Prasanth N} and Jennifer John-Kalarickal and Fonseca, {Vivian A.}",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1002/msj.20113",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "76",
pages = "216--226",
journal = "Annals of Global Health",
issn = "0027-2507",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Emerging concepts in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus

AU - Surampudi, Prasanth N

AU - John-Kalarickal, Jennifer

AU - Fonseca, Vivian A.

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disorder. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and a relative insulin secretion defect. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has risen worldwide in large part because of an increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The underlying pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus are still being elucidated. Recent advances in diabetes research have helped us to gain a better understanding about insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects. The evolving understanding about the influence of the incretin effect, insulin signal transduction, adipose tissue, intra-islet cell communication, and inflammation is changing the way in which we view type 2 diabetes mellitus. This new understanding will eventually provide us with new treatment approaches to help patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus. This article gives a review of the current and emerging concepts of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

AB - Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disorder. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and a relative insulin secretion defect. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has risen worldwide in large part because of an increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The underlying pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus are still being elucidated. Recent advances in diabetes research have helped us to gain a better understanding about insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects. The evolving understanding about the influence of the incretin effect, insulin signal transduction, adipose tissue, intra-islet cell communication, and inflammation is changing the way in which we view type 2 diabetes mellitus. This new understanding will eventually provide us with new treatment approaches to help patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus. This article gives a review of the current and emerging concepts of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

KW - β-cell dysfunction

KW - Hepatic glucose output

KW - Incretin effect

KW - Inflammation

KW - Insulin resistance

KW - Type 2 diabetes mellitus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=67949109691&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=67949109691&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/msj.20113

DO - 10.1002/msj.20113

M3 - Review article

VL - 76

SP - 216

EP - 226

JO - Annals of Global Health

JF - Annals of Global Health

SN - 0027-2507

IS - 3

ER -