Emerging advances of nanotechnology in drug and vaccine delivery against viral associated respiratory infectious diseases (VARID)

Amir Seyfoori, Mahdieh Shokrollahi Barough, Pooneh Mokarram, Mazaher Ahmadi, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Alireza Sheidary, Tayyebeh Madrakian, Mohammad Kiumarsi, Tavia Walsh, Kielan D. McAlinden, Chandra C. Ghosh, Pawan Sharma, Amir A. Zeki, Saeid Ghavami, Mohsen Akbari

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and vaccines against viral infections. Besides the specific physiological properties of the respiratory system, there is a significant demand for utilizing nano-designs in the production of vaccines or antiviral agents for airway-localized administration. SARS-CoV-2, as an immediate example of respiratory viruses, is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, similarly to other members of the coronaviridae. Hence, reviewing the current and past emerging nanotechnology-based medications on similar respiratory viral diseases can identify pathways towards generating novel SARS-CoV-2 nanotherapeutics and/or nano-vaccines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6937
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Nano-vaccine
  • Nanomedicine
  • Respiratory disease
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Viral infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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