Emergent and reemergent arboviruses in South America and the Caribbean: Why so many and why now?

Carlos Brisola Marcondes, Marta Contigiani, Raquel Miranda Gleiser, William Reisen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Several arboviruses have emerged and/or reemerged in the New World in the past decades. Zika and chikungunya viruses, formerly restricted to Africa and perhaps Asia, invaded the continent, causing great concern. Dengue virus outbreaks have continued to occur in almost all countries, with millions of cases per year. West Nile virus rapidly invaded North America, and now cases have been found in Central and South America. Other arboviruses, such as Mayaro and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses, have increased their activity and have been found in new regions. Changes in pathogenicity have been documented for some viruses leading to unexpected disease. A diverse mosquito fauna, changing climate and vegetation, increased travel, and unplanned urbanization producing conditions for the proliferation of Aedes aegypti (L), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and other vectors have combined to strongly influence changes in the distribution and incidence of several arboviruses. The need for thorough studies of the mosquito fauna and modifications of environmental conditions, mostly in urban areas strongly influenced by social, political, and economic factors, is emphasized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)509-532
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Medical Entomology
Volume54
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2017

Fingerprint

Arboviruses
arboviruses
South America
Zika virus
Culicidae
Eastern equine encephalitis virus
Chikungunya virus
fauna
Central America
West Nile virus
Dengue virus
Culex
Dengue Virus
Urbanization
economic factors
Culex quinquefasciatus
Aedes
Politics
North America
Aedes aegypti

Keywords

  • Aedes aegypti
  • Arbovirus
  • Dengue
  • Ecology
  • Urbanization
  • Zika

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Emergent and reemergent arboviruses in South America and the Caribbean : Why so many and why now? / Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Contigiani, Marta; Gleiser, Raquel Miranda; Reisen, William.

In: Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 54, No. 3, 01.05.2017, p. 509-532.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Marcondes, Carlos Brisola ; Contigiani, Marta ; Gleiser, Raquel Miranda ; Reisen, William. / Emergent and reemergent arboviruses in South America and the Caribbean : Why so many and why now?. In: Journal of Medical Entomology. 2017 ; Vol. 54, No. 3. pp. 509-532.
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