Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a full mutation of the FMR1 gene (>200 CGG repeats and subsequent methylation), such that there is little or no FMR1 protein (FMRP) produced, leading to intellectual disability (ID). Individuals with the premutation allele (55–200 CGG repeats, generally unmethylated) have elevated FMR1 mRNA levels, a consequence of enhanced transcription, resulting in neuronal toxicity and a spectrum of premutation-associated disorders, including the neurodegenerative disorder fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Here we described 14 patients who had both lowered FMRP and elevated FMR1 mRNA levels, representing dual mechanisms of clinical involvement, which may combine features of both FXS and FXTAS. In addition, the majority of these cases show psychiatric symptoms, including bipolar disorder, and/or psychotic features, which are rarely seen in those with just FXS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Biological Psychiatry