Efficacy of vegetated buffer strips for retaining Cryptosporidium parvum

Kenneth W. Tate, Maria Das Gracas C Pereira, Edward R Atwill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Overland and shallow subsurface hydrologic transport of pathogenic Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from cattle feces into surface drinking water supplies is a major concern on annual grasslands in California's central and southern Sierra Nevada foothills. Soil boxes (0.5 m wide × 1.1 m long × 0.3 m deep) were used to evaluate the ability of grass vegetated buffer strips to retain 2 × 108 spiked C. parvum oocysts in 200-g fecal deposits during simulated rainfall intensities of 30 to 47.5 mm/h over 2 h. Buffers were comprised of Ahwahnee sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, active, thermic Mollic Haploxeralfs; 78:18:4 sand to silt to clay ratio; dry bulk density = 1.4 g/cm3) set at 5 to 20% land slope, and ≥95% grass cover (grass stubble height = 10 cm; biomass = 900 kg/ha dry weight). Total number of oocysts discharged from each soil box (combined overland and subsurface flow) during the 120-min simulation ranged from 1.5 × 10 6 to 23.9 × 106 oocysts. Observed overall mean log10 reduction of total C. parvum flux per meter of vegetated buffer was 1.44, 1.19, and 1.18 for buffers at 5, 12, and 20% land slope, respectively. Rainfall application rate (mm/h) was strongly associated with oocyst flux from these vegetated buffers, resulting in a decrease of 2 to 4% in the log10 reduction per meter buffer for every additional mm/h applied to the soil box. These results support the use of strategically placed vegetated buffers as one of several management strategies that can reduce the risk of water-borne C. parvum attributable to extensive cattle grazing on annual grassland watersheds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2243-2251
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Environmental Quality
Volume33
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2004

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buffer zone
Buffers
grass
Soils
Rain
cattle
grassland
Fluxes
stubble
soil
Silt
dry density
overland flow
subsurface flow
precipitation intensity
Watersheds
sandy loam
Water supply
Potable water
feces

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Efficacy of vegetated buffer strips for retaining Cryptosporidium parvum. / Tate, Kenneth W.; Pereira, Maria Das Gracas C; Atwill, Edward R.

In: Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 33, No. 6, 11.2004, p. 2243-2251.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tate, Kenneth W. ; Pereira, Maria Das Gracas C ; Atwill, Edward R. / Efficacy of vegetated buffer strips for retaining Cryptosporidium parvum. In: Journal of Environmental Quality. 2004 ; Vol. 33, No. 6. pp. 2243-2251.
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abstract = "Overland and shallow subsurface hydrologic transport of pathogenic Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from cattle feces into surface drinking water supplies is a major concern on annual grasslands in California's central and southern Sierra Nevada foothills. Soil boxes (0.5 m wide × 1.1 m long × 0.3 m deep) were used to evaluate the ability of grass vegetated buffer strips to retain 2 × 108 spiked C. parvum oocysts in 200-g fecal deposits during simulated rainfall intensities of 30 to 47.5 mm/h over 2 h. Buffers were comprised of Ahwahnee sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, active, thermic Mollic Haploxeralfs; 78:18:4 sand to silt to clay ratio; dry bulk density = 1.4 g/cm3) set at 5 to 20{\%} land slope, and ≥95{\%} grass cover (grass stubble height = 10 cm; biomass = 900 kg/ha dry weight). Total number of oocysts discharged from each soil box (combined overland and subsurface flow) during the 120-min simulation ranged from 1.5 × 10 6 to 23.9 × 106 oocysts. Observed overall mean log10 reduction of total C. parvum flux per meter of vegetated buffer was 1.44, 1.19, and 1.18 for buffers at 5, 12, and 20{\%} land slope, respectively. Rainfall application rate (mm/h) was strongly associated with oocyst flux from these vegetated buffers, resulting in a decrease of 2 to 4{\%} in the log10 reduction per meter buffer for every additional mm/h applied to the soil box. These results support the use of strategically placed vegetated buffers as one of several management strategies that can reduce the risk of water-borne C. parvum attributable to extensive cattle grazing on annual grassland watersheds.",
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