Efficacy of a heat-spray and heat-double spray process on inoculated nuts with Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 1045

Fredy Salazar, Sara Garcia, Manuel Lagunas-Solar, Zhongli Pan, James S Cullor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Due to Salmonella outbreaks in almonds, regulatory standards have been established, requiring that almonds for human consumption in North America must achieve a minimum of 4 log10 CFU/g reduction of Salmonella. This study investigated a system using a combination of heating and transient application of ethanol to reduce bacterial load. This approach used a small scale heat-spray and heat-double spray process that included a two factor block design with heat (25±2 °C and 125±2 °C) and spray levels (0,1,2); One factor design with nut levels of almonds, pistachios, pecans, and walnuts for each heat-spray and heat-double spray process; a two factor experiment included a dip contact time (5s, 1800s) and ethanol evaporation time (5 s, 1800 s). Also, to evaluate the interaction of a heat-spray process on moisture content of almonds, a two factor design with levels of heat (25±2 °C and 125 ± 2 °C) and spray (0,1) was used. Additionally, the spray evaporation rate was evaluated. The heat-spray process shows additivity, while the heat-double spray process shows synergism. The heat-double spray process on almonds achieved a 6.1 mean log10 CFU/g reduction of Salmonella that was 35% higher than that of the heat-spray. For other nuts, the heat-double spray process led to a 4.8, 3.0, and 4.0 log10 reduction for pecan, pistachio, and walnut, respectively. The dip time (p < 0.05) had a greater effect than ethanol evaporation (p > 0.05) on log10 reduction of Salmonella in almonds. By applying ethanol 70%, the moisture increases by ∼0.5% w.b., whereas applying temperature decreases moisture by ∼2% w.b. The implication of these findings is that both the heat-spray and heat-double-spray process may be alternatives to the current almond disinfection processes in achieving a high log10 reduction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)74-79
Number of pages6
JournalFood Control
Volume81
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017

Fingerprint

Salmonella enteritidis
Nuts
Salmonella Enteritidis
nuts
Hot Temperature
heat
almonds
Salmonella
Carya
Pistacia
Juglans
Ethanol
pecans
pistachios
ethanol
walnuts
Bacterial Load
evaporation rate
Disinfection
North America

Keywords

  • Ethanol
  • Food safety
  • Heat-spray phases
  • Log reduction process
  • Salmonella enteritidis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science

Cite this

Efficacy of a heat-spray and heat-double spray process on inoculated nuts with Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 1045. / Salazar, Fredy; Garcia, Sara; Lagunas-Solar, Manuel; Pan, Zhongli; Cullor, James S.

In: Food Control, Vol. 81, 01.11.2017, p. 74-79.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Salazar, Fredy ; Garcia, Sara ; Lagunas-Solar, Manuel ; Pan, Zhongli ; Cullor, James S. / Efficacy of a heat-spray and heat-double spray process on inoculated nuts with Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 1045. In: Food Control. 2017 ; Vol. 81. pp. 74-79.
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