Efficacy and safety of a modified-live cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine in koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) for prevention of koi herpesvirus disease

E. P Scott Weber, Kirsten V. Malm, Susan C. Yun, Lori A. Campbell, Philip H Kass, Gary D. Marty, Kira Salonius, Arnon Dishon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective—To investigate safety and efficacy of a cyprinid herpesvirus type 3 (CyHV3) modified-live virus vaccine for the prevention of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVd).

Animals—420 healthy koi (Cyprinus carpio koi).

Procedures—Fish were vaccinated with a 1× dose or 10× overdose of CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine or a placebo through bath exposure in tanks at 22°C. Horizontal transmission of vaccine virus was evaluated by commingling unvaccinated and vaccinated fish. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge exposure of vaccinated and naïve fish to a wild-type virus. Fish that died were submitted for quantitative PCR assay for CyHV3 and histologic evaluation.

Results—The CyHV3 vaccine was safe and efficacious, even at a 10× overdose. Vaccine-associated mortality rate was inversely associated with body weight, with a cumulative mortality rate of 9.4% (18/192) in fish weighing ≤ 87 g and no deaths in fish weighing > 87 g (0/48). Horizontal transfer of vaccine virus from vaccinates to naïve fish was negligible. For efficacy, the vaccine provided a significant reduction in mortality rate after challenge exposure to a wild-type virus, with a prevented fraction of 0.83 versus the placebo control fish.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—KHVd is highly contagious and commonly leads to deaths in 80% to 100% of exposed fish, representing a major threat to koi and common carp populations throughout the world. The CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine had a favorable safety profile and was an effective vaccine for the control of KHVd in koi weighing > 87 g.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)899-904
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume75
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 14 2014

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Herpesvirus Vaccines
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3
koi
Carps
Herpesviridae
Cyprinus carpio
Fishes
Vaccines
vaccines
Safety
Viruses
viruses
fish
overdose
Mortality
placebos
Placebos
death
Baths
Body Weight

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Efficacy and safety of a modified-live cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine in koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) for prevention of koi herpesvirus disease. / Weber, E. P Scott; Malm, Kirsten V.; Yun, Susan C.; Campbell, Lori A.; Kass, Philip H; Marty, Gary D.; Salonius, Kira; Dishon, Arnon.

In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 75, No. 10, 14.10.2014, p. 899-904.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Weber, E. P Scott ; Malm, Kirsten V. ; Yun, Susan C. ; Campbell, Lori A. ; Kass, Philip H ; Marty, Gary D. ; Salonius, Kira ; Dishon, Arnon. / Efficacy and safety of a modified-live cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine in koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) for prevention of koi herpesvirus disease. In: American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2014 ; Vol. 75, No. 10. pp. 899-904.
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abstract = "Objective—To investigate safety and efficacy of a cyprinid herpesvirus type 3 (CyHV3) modified-live virus vaccine for the prevention of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVd).Animals—420 healthy koi (Cyprinus carpio koi).Procedures—Fish were vaccinated with a 1× dose or 10× overdose of CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine or a placebo through bath exposure in tanks at 22°C. Horizontal transmission of vaccine virus was evaluated by commingling unvaccinated and vaccinated fish. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge exposure of vaccinated and na{\"i}ve fish to a wild-type virus. Fish that died were submitted for quantitative PCR assay for CyHV3 and histologic evaluation.Results—The CyHV3 vaccine was safe and efficacious, even at a 10× overdose. Vaccine-associated mortality rate was inversely associated with body weight, with a cumulative mortality rate of 9.4{\%} (18/192) in fish weighing ≤ 87 g and no deaths in fish weighing > 87 g (0/48). Horizontal transfer of vaccine virus from vaccinates to na{\"i}ve fish was negligible. For efficacy, the vaccine provided a significant reduction in mortality rate after challenge exposure to a wild-type virus, with a prevented fraction of 0.83 versus the placebo control fish.Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—KHVd is highly contagious and commonly leads to deaths in 80{\%} to 100{\%} of exposed fish, representing a major threat to koi and common carp populations throughout the world. The CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine had a favorable safety profile and was an effective vaccine for the control of KHVd in koi weighing > 87 g.",
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AU - Malm, Kirsten V.

AU - Yun, Susan C.

AU - Campbell, Lori A.

AU - Kass, Philip H

AU - Marty, Gary D.

AU - Salonius, Kira

AU - Dishon, Arnon

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N2 - Objective—To investigate safety and efficacy of a cyprinid herpesvirus type 3 (CyHV3) modified-live virus vaccine for the prevention of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVd).Animals—420 healthy koi (Cyprinus carpio koi).Procedures—Fish were vaccinated with a 1× dose or 10× overdose of CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine or a placebo through bath exposure in tanks at 22°C. Horizontal transmission of vaccine virus was evaluated by commingling unvaccinated and vaccinated fish. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge exposure of vaccinated and naïve fish to a wild-type virus. Fish that died were submitted for quantitative PCR assay for CyHV3 and histologic evaluation.Results—The CyHV3 vaccine was safe and efficacious, even at a 10× overdose. Vaccine-associated mortality rate was inversely associated with body weight, with a cumulative mortality rate of 9.4% (18/192) in fish weighing ≤ 87 g and no deaths in fish weighing > 87 g (0/48). Horizontal transfer of vaccine virus from vaccinates to naïve fish was negligible. For efficacy, the vaccine provided a significant reduction in mortality rate after challenge exposure to a wild-type virus, with a prevented fraction of 0.83 versus the placebo control fish.Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—KHVd is highly contagious and commonly leads to deaths in 80% to 100% of exposed fish, representing a major threat to koi and common carp populations throughout the world. The CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine had a favorable safety profile and was an effective vaccine for the control of KHVd in koi weighing > 87 g.

AB - Objective—To investigate safety and efficacy of a cyprinid herpesvirus type 3 (CyHV3) modified-live virus vaccine for the prevention of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVd).Animals—420 healthy koi (Cyprinus carpio koi).Procedures—Fish were vaccinated with a 1× dose or 10× overdose of CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine or a placebo through bath exposure in tanks at 22°C. Horizontal transmission of vaccine virus was evaluated by commingling unvaccinated and vaccinated fish. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge exposure of vaccinated and naïve fish to a wild-type virus. Fish that died were submitted for quantitative PCR assay for CyHV3 and histologic evaluation.Results—The CyHV3 vaccine was safe and efficacious, even at a 10× overdose. Vaccine-associated mortality rate was inversely associated with body weight, with a cumulative mortality rate of 9.4% (18/192) in fish weighing ≤ 87 g and no deaths in fish weighing > 87 g (0/48). Horizontal transfer of vaccine virus from vaccinates to naïve fish was negligible. For efficacy, the vaccine provided a significant reduction in mortality rate after challenge exposure to a wild-type virus, with a prevented fraction of 0.83 versus the placebo control fish.Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—KHVd is highly contagious and commonly leads to deaths in 80% to 100% of exposed fish, representing a major threat to koi and common carp populations throughout the world. The CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine had a favorable safety profile and was an effective vaccine for the control of KHVd in koi weighing > 87 g.

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