Effects of weaning cereals with different phytate contents on hemoglobin, iron stores, and serum zinc: A randomized intervention in infants from 6 to 12 mo of age

Torbjörn Lind, Bo Lönnerdal, Lars Åke Persson, Hans Stenlund, Catharina Tennefors, Olle Hernell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Weaning foods frequently contain phytate, an inhibitor of iron and zinc absorption, which may contribute to the high prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency seen in infancy. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether either an extensive reduction in the phytate content of infant cereals or the use of milk-based, iron-fortified infant formula would improve iron and zinc status in infants. Design: In a double-blind design, infants (n = 300) were randomly assigned to 3 cereal groups from 6 to 12 mo of age: commercial milk-based cereal drink (MCD) and porridge (CC group), phytate-reduced MCD and phytate-reduced porridge (PR group), or milk-based infant formula and porridge with the usual phytate content (IF group). Venous blood samples were collected at 6 and 12 mo. Dietary intake was recorded monthly. After the intervention, 267 infants remained in the analysis. Results: Hemoglobin concentrations of < 110 g/L, serum ferritin concentrations of < 12 μg/L, and serum zinc concentrations of < 10.7 μmol/L had overall prevalences at baseline and 12 mo of 28% and 15%, 9% and 18%, and 22% and 27%, respectively. After the intervention, there were no significant differences in any measure of iron or zinc status between the CC and the PR groups. However, hemoglobin was significantly higher (120 g/L compared with 117 g/L; P = 0.012) and the prevalence of anemia was lower (13% compared with 23%; P = 0.06) in the PR group than in the IF group, which could be explained by differences in daily iron intake between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Extensive reduction in the phytate content of weaning cereals had little long-term effect on the iron and zinc status of Swedish infants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)168-175
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume78
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2003

Fingerprint

Phytic Acid
blood serum
Weaning
phytic acid
Zinc
hemoglobin
weaning
Hemoglobins
Iron
zinc
iron
Serum
Milk
milk
Infant Formula
infant formulas
Apoferritins
weaning foods
ferritin
infancy

Keywords

  • Cereals
  • Infants
  • Iron
  • Phytate
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • Sweden
  • Weaning
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Effects of weaning cereals with different phytate contents on hemoglobin, iron stores, and serum zinc : A randomized intervention in infants from 6 to 12 mo of age. / Lind, Torbjörn; Lönnerdal, Bo; Persson, Lars Åke; Stenlund, Hans; Tennefors, Catharina; Hernell, Olle.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 1, 07.2003, p. 168-175.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lind, Torbjörn ; Lönnerdal, Bo ; Persson, Lars Åke ; Stenlund, Hans ; Tennefors, Catharina ; Hernell, Olle. / Effects of weaning cereals with different phytate contents on hemoglobin, iron stores, and serum zinc : A randomized intervention in infants from 6 to 12 mo of age. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 ; Vol. 78, No. 1. pp. 168-175.
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T1 - Effects of weaning cereals with different phytate contents on hemoglobin, iron stores, and serum zinc

T2 - A randomized intervention in infants from 6 to 12 mo of age

AU - Lind, Torbjörn

AU - Lönnerdal, Bo

AU - Persson, Lars Åke

AU - Stenlund, Hans

AU - Tennefors, Catharina

AU - Hernell, Olle

PY - 2003/7

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N2 - Background: Weaning foods frequently contain phytate, an inhibitor of iron and zinc absorption, which may contribute to the high prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency seen in infancy. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether either an extensive reduction in the phytate content of infant cereals or the use of milk-based, iron-fortified infant formula would improve iron and zinc status in infants. Design: In a double-blind design, infants (n = 300) were randomly assigned to 3 cereal groups from 6 to 12 mo of age: commercial milk-based cereal drink (MCD) and porridge (CC group), phytate-reduced MCD and phytate-reduced porridge (PR group), or milk-based infant formula and porridge with the usual phytate content (IF group). Venous blood samples were collected at 6 and 12 mo. Dietary intake was recorded monthly. After the intervention, 267 infants remained in the analysis. Results: Hemoglobin concentrations of < 110 g/L, serum ferritin concentrations of < 12 μg/L, and serum zinc concentrations of < 10.7 μmol/L had overall prevalences at baseline and 12 mo of 28% and 15%, 9% and 18%, and 22% and 27%, respectively. After the intervention, there were no significant differences in any measure of iron or zinc status between the CC and the PR groups. However, hemoglobin was significantly higher (120 g/L compared with 117 g/L; P = 0.012) and the prevalence of anemia was lower (13% compared with 23%; P = 0.06) in the PR group than in the IF group, which could be explained by differences in daily iron intake between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Extensive reduction in the phytate content of weaning cereals had little long-term effect on the iron and zinc status of Swedish infants.

AB - Background: Weaning foods frequently contain phytate, an inhibitor of iron and zinc absorption, which may contribute to the high prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency seen in infancy. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether either an extensive reduction in the phytate content of infant cereals or the use of milk-based, iron-fortified infant formula would improve iron and zinc status in infants. Design: In a double-blind design, infants (n = 300) were randomly assigned to 3 cereal groups from 6 to 12 mo of age: commercial milk-based cereal drink (MCD) and porridge (CC group), phytate-reduced MCD and phytate-reduced porridge (PR group), or milk-based infant formula and porridge with the usual phytate content (IF group). Venous blood samples were collected at 6 and 12 mo. Dietary intake was recorded monthly. After the intervention, 267 infants remained in the analysis. Results: Hemoglobin concentrations of < 110 g/L, serum ferritin concentrations of < 12 μg/L, and serum zinc concentrations of < 10.7 μmol/L had overall prevalences at baseline and 12 mo of 28% and 15%, 9% and 18%, and 22% and 27%, respectively. After the intervention, there were no significant differences in any measure of iron or zinc status between the CC and the PR groups. However, hemoglobin was significantly higher (120 g/L compared with 117 g/L; P = 0.012) and the prevalence of anemia was lower (13% compared with 23%; P = 0.06) in the PR group than in the IF group, which could be explained by differences in daily iron intake between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Extensive reduction in the phytate content of weaning cereals had little long-term effect on the iron and zinc status of Swedish infants.

KW - Cereals

KW - Infants

KW - Iron

KW - Phytate

KW - Randomized controlled trial

KW - Sweden

KW - Weaning

KW - Zinc

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