Effects of three levels of early intervention services on children prenatally exposed to cocaine

Angelika H. Claussen, Keith G. Scott, Peter Clive Mundy, Lynne F. Katz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Cocaine use during pregnancy is a high-risk indicator for adverse developmental outcomes. Three levels of intervention (center, home, and primary care) were compared in a full service, birth to age 3, early intervention program serving children exposed to cocaine prenatally. Data were collected on 130 children from urban, predominantly poor, primarily minority families. At 36 months, statistically significant, moderate to large intervention effects were found for cognition, receptive and expressive language, and gross motor development. Small effects were observed for behavior problems, and no statistically significant effects were found for fine motor or prosocial skills. Center-based care was most effective for improving language. These findings provide support that the center- and home-based early intervention programs examined in this study had positive effects on children at risk due to prenatal cocaine exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-220
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Early Intervention
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Health Professions(all)
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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