OBJECTIVE To determine effects of 3 plasma concentrations of fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACiso) and cardiovascular variables in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). ANIMALS 6 adult parrots. PROCEDURES In phase 1, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. The MACiso was determined for each bird by use of a bracketing method and supramaximal electrical stimulus. Fentanyl (20 µg/kg) was administered IV, and blood samples were collected over time to measure plasma fentanyl concentrations for pharmacokinetic calculations. In phase 2, pharmacokinetic values for individual birds were used for administration of fentanyl to achieve target plasma concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 ng/mL. At each concentration, MACiso and cardiovascular variables were determined. Data were analyzed with mixed-effects multilevel linear regression analysis. RESULTS Mean ± SD fentanyl plasma concentrations were 0 ng/mL, 5.01 ± 1.53 ng/ mL, 12.12 ± 3.58 ng/mL, and 24.93 ± 4.13 ng/mL, and MACiso values were 2.09 ± 0.17%, 1.45 ± 0.32%, 1.34 ± 0.31%, and 0.95 ± 0.14% for fentanyl target concentrations of 0, 8, 16, and 32 ng/mL, respectively. Fentanyl significantly decreased MACiso in a dose-dependent manner. Heart rate and blood pressure significantly decreased at all fentanyl doses, compared with values for MACiso at 0 ng of fentanyl/mL. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fentanyl significantly decreased the MACiso in healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, but this was accompanied by a depressive effect on heart rate and blood pressure that would need to be considered for application of this technique in clinical settings.
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