Effects of lipolysis or heat treatment on HIV-1 provirus in breast milk

Caroline J Chantry, Pamela Morrison, Jeanette Panchula, Carmen Rivera, George Hillyer, Carmen Zorilla, Clemente Diaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Transmission of HIV-1 infection through breastfeeding is associated with integrated DNA (provirus) in milk cells. Reduction of HIV-1 DNA in milk may lessen infectivity. Purpose: To investigate efficacy of two methods available in developing countries to reduce HIV-1 proviral DNA in breast milk. Methods: Methods simulated field conditions; milk was heated by bringing it to a boil, for instance, over a cooking fire, and lipolysis was done at room temperature. Four HIV-positive pregnant women were recruited for this pilot study, instructed to feed formula exclusively, and to stimulate milk production using pumping. Milk was collected twice weekly for 3 weeks and analyzed qualitatively for HIV-1 proviral DNA by polymerase chain reaction at three stages: 1) fresh, 2) after standing for 6 hours, and 3) after having been brought to the boiling point. Results: Seventeen samples from 4 mothers were analyzed. Fifteen of 17 fresh samples (88%) had measurable HIV-1 proviral DNA despite all mothers' having had low or undetectable plasma viral loads. Lipolysis (standing at room temperature) for 6 hours did not destroy proviral DNA: 6 of 7 samples (86%) tested positive for DNA after lipolysis. No samples of milk (n = 8) brought to a boil were positive for HIV-1 proviral DNA (p < .0001). Conclusions: This preliminary evidence suggests that inherent lipolytic activity of fresh breast milk is inadequate for destruction of HIV-1; bringing breast milk to a boil may result in decreased HIV-1 infectivity; and breast milk cell-associated HIV-1 may not reflect plasma viral load. Nutritional value or possible bacterial contamination of milk treated in this manner was not assessed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)325-329
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume24
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2000

Keywords

  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Breast milk
  • Developing countries
  • DNA
  • Heat treatment
  • HIV
  • Lipolysis
  • Prevention
  • Provirus
  • Vertical transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Immunology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of lipolysis or heat treatment on HIV-1 provirus in breast milk'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this