To evaluate the effects of nontransmural ischemia on epicardial contractile function, we implanted sonomicrometers in 15 open-chest, anesthetized (halothane) dogs. One cylindrical crystal (radiating ultrasound 360°) was used as a transmitter for three conventional flat plate crystals arrayed to measure epicardial segment shortening along three different axes that were deviated 0° (parallel), 45° (oblique), and 90° (perpendicular) from surface fiber orientation in the anteriorapical or posterior-basal left ventricle. During baseline conditions, epicardial shortening was maximal parallel with fiber orientation. Shortening decreased in a non-linear manner as deviation from fiber orientation increased, but there were significant differences between the two left ventricular regions suggesting that more substantial lateral strain occurs in the anterior-apical than the posterior-basal area. During coronary inflow restriction, changes in epicardial segment shortening also varied greatly depending on location and alignment. At levels of wall thickening impairment associated with normal subepicardial perfusion, changes in epicardial function were restricted to the segments aligned perpendicular to fiber orientation whereas the parallel and oblique segments displayed moderate dysfunction or none at all. Thus, transmural tethering modifies epicardial segmental motion during coronary inflow restriction, but the severity of the influence depends on the alignment and location of the epicardial measurements.
ASJC Scopus subject areas