Effects of incidental infections and immune activation on disease progression in experimentally feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats

Gerhard H. Reubel, Gregg A. Dean, Jeanne W. George, Jeffrey E. Barlough, Niels C Pedersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Specific pathogen-free cats were experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and subsequently exposed to common infectious pathogens and immune stimuli over a 3-year period. Cats with preexisting FIV infection showed signs of disease after exposure to Haemobartonellafelis, Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, and feline calicivirus similar to signs in non-FIV-infected cats, although they were more severe. No adverse effects of immunization with inactivated rabies virus vaccine and a synthetic polypro-line immunogen were observed in either FIV-infected or non-FIV-infected cats, whereas the application of a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine caused transient fever and lymphadenopathy in both groups of animals. Primary immune responses to pathogens or immunogens were usually delayed or diminished in FIV-infected compared with non-FIV-infected cats. Repeated infections and immune activation had no significant effects on the levels of FIV-specific antibodies or on the proportion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) containing FIV proviral DNA. However, FIV-infected cats that were not exposed to immune stimuli had lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte numbers and lower CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratios at the end of the 3-year study than FIV-infected cats exposed to cofactors. The latter also had normal levels of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II) antigen expression on PBMCs, while FIV-infected cats not exposed to cofactors had up-regulated IL-2R and down-regulated MHC-II antigen expression. It was concluded that repeated immune stimulation did not have a deleterious effect on the course of FIV-induced immunodeficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1003-1015
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume7
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1994

Keywords

  • Cofactor-Coinfection
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus
  • Immune activation
  • Lymphocyte subsets
  • Pathogenesis
  • Polymerase chain reaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Virology
  • Immunology and Allergy

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