Effectiveness of furosemide in attenuating exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in horses when administered at 4- and 24-h prior to high-speed training

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Abstract

Background: Due to the high prevalence of EIPH in racehorses and its potential impact on the horse's health, furosemide administration is permitted up to 4-h prior to post time in most North American racing jurisdictions. Anecdotal reports suggest that administration of furosemide 24-h prior to strenuous exercise may be equally effective in decreasing the severity of EIPH. Objectives: To 1) compare the efficacy of furosemide in reducing the presence and severity of EIPH when administered 4- or 24-h prior to strenuous exercise 2) characterise electrolyte and blood parameters following administration of furosemide at 4- and 24-h prior to exercise. Study design: 3-way crossover. Methods: Fifteen Thoroughbred racehorses received 5 mL of 0.9% NaCl or 250 mg of furosemide either 4- or 24-h prior to a 5-furlong simulated race. Blood samples were collected prior to and post-run for determination of furosemide, lactate, haemoglobin and electrolyte concentrations. One-hour post-race, an endoscopic exam and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed. Horses were assigned an EIPH score based on predetermined criteria and the number of red blood cells in BAL fluid was determined. Results: Endoscopic EIPH scores were lower in the 4-h vs. the 24-h (P = 0.03) furosemide groups. RBC counts in BAL fluid were lower in the 4-h furosemide vs. saline treatment groups (P = 0.01) but no difference was noted between the saline and 24-h furosemide groups (P = 0.3), nor between the 4- and 24-h groups (P = 0.5). Main limitations: Small sample size and large range of running times for the 5-furlong work. Conclusions: While none of the treatments prevented EIPH, endoscopic scores and RBC counts in BAL fluid support the efficacy of furosemide in reducing the severity of EIPH. Endoscopic scores were lower in the 4-h furosemide group compared with 24-h administration. Red blood cell counts were lower in the 4-h furosemide group compared with saline treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEquine Veterinary Journal
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2017

Fingerprint

furosemide
Furosemide
Horses
hemorrhage
exercise
lungs
Exercise
Hemorrhage
horses
Lung
erythrocyte count
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
racehorses
Electrolytes
electrolytes
Erythrocyte Count
blood
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Running
Sample Size

Keywords

  • Bronchoalveolar lavage
  • Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage
  • Furosemide
  • Horse
  • Horse racing
  • Lasix

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Equine

Cite this

@article{d71c0ee8ef1b42ee8417717663710b5b,
title = "Effectiveness of furosemide in attenuating exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in horses when administered at 4- and 24-h prior to high-speed training",
abstract = "Background: Due to the high prevalence of EIPH in racehorses and its potential impact on the horse's health, furosemide administration is permitted up to 4-h prior to post time in most North American racing jurisdictions. Anecdotal reports suggest that administration of furosemide 24-h prior to strenuous exercise may be equally effective in decreasing the severity of EIPH. Objectives: To 1) compare the efficacy of furosemide in reducing the presence and severity of EIPH when administered 4- or 24-h prior to strenuous exercise 2) characterise electrolyte and blood parameters following administration of furosemide at 4- and 24-h prior to exercise. Study design: 3-way crossover. Methods: Fifteen Thoroughbred racehorses received 5 mL of 0.9{\%} NaCl or 250 mg of furosemide either 4- or 24-h prior to a 5-furlong simulated race. Blood samples were collected prior to and post-run for determination of furosemide, lactate, haemoglobin and electrolyte concentrations. One-hour post-race, an endoscopic exam and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed. Horses were assigned an EIPH score based on predetermined criteria and the number of red blood cells in BAL fluid was determined. Results: Endoscopic EIPH scores were lower in the 4-h vs. the 24-h (P = 0.03) furosemide groups. RBC counts in BAL fluid were lower in the 4-h furosemide vs. saline treatment groups (P = 0.01) but no difference was noted between the saline and 24-h furosemide groups (P = 0.3), nor between the 4- and 24-h groups (P = 0.5). Main limitations: Small sample size and large range of running times for the 5-furlong work. Conclusions: While none of the treatments prevented EIPH, endoscopic scores and RBC counts in BAL fluid support the efficacy of furosemide in reducing the severity of EIPH. Endoscopic scores were lower in the 4-h furosemide group compared with 24-h administration. Red blood cell counts were lower in the 4-h furosemide group compared with saline treatment.",
keywords = "Bronchoalveolar lavage, Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage, Furosemide, Horse, Horse racing, Lasix",
author = "Knych, {Heather K} and Wilson, {William D} and A. Vale and Kass, {Philip H} and Rick Arthur and Jones, {James H}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1111/evj.12760",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Equine veterinary journal. Supplement",
issn = "2042-3306",
publisher = "British Equine Veterinary Association",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effectiveness of furosemide in attenuating exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in horses when administered at 4- and 24-h prior to high-speed training

AU - Knych, Heather K

AU - Wilson, William D

AU - Vale, A.

AU - Kass, Philip H

AU - Arthur, Rick

AU - Jones, James H

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Background: Due to the high prevalence of EIPH in racehorses and its potential impact on the horse's health, furosemide administration is permitted up to 4-h prior to post time in most North American racing jurisdictions. Anecdotal reports suggest that administration of furosemide 24-h prior to strenuous exercise may be equally effective in decreasing the severity of EIPH. Objectives: To 1) compare the efficacy of furosemide in reducing the presence and severity of EIPH when administered 4- or 24-h prior to strenuous exercise 2) characterise electrolyte and blood parameters following administration of furosemide at 4- and 24-h prior to exercise. Study design: 3-way crossover. Methods: Fifteen Thoroughbred racehorses received 5 mL of 0.9% NaCl or 250 mg of furosemide either 4- or 24-h prior to a 5-furlong simulated race. Blood samples were collected prior to and post-run for determination of furosemide, lactate, haemoglobin and electrolyte concentrations. One-hour post-race, an endoscopic exam and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed. Horses were assigned an EIPH score based on predetermined criteria and the number of red blood cells in BAL fluid was determined. Results: Endoscopic EIPH scores were lower in the 4-h vs. the 24-h (P = 0.03) furosemide groups. RBC counts in BAL fluid were lower in the 4-h furosemide vs. saline treatment groups (P = 0.01) but no difference was noted between the saline and 24-h furosemide groups (P = 0.3), nor between the 4- and 24-h groups (P = 0.5). Main limitations: Small sample size and large range of running times for the 5-furlong work. Conclusions: While none of the treatments prevented EIPH, endoscopic scores and RBC counts in BAL fluid support the efficacy of furosemide in reducing the severity of EIPH. Endoscopic scores were lower in the 4-h furosemide group compared with 24-h administration. Red blood cell counts were lower in the 4-h furosemide group compared with saline treatment.

AB - Background: Due to the high prevalence of EIPH in racehorses and its potential impact on the horse's health, furosemide administration is permitted up to 4-h prior to post time in most North American racing jurisdictions. Anecdotal reports suggest that administration of furosemide 24-h prior to strenuous exercise may be equally effective in decreasing the severity of EIPH. Objectives: To 1) compare the efficacy of furosemide in reducing the presence and severity of EIPH when administered 4- or 24-h prior to strenuous exercise 2) characterise electrolyte and blood parameters following administration of furosemide at 4- and 24-h prior to exercise. Study design: 3-way crossover. Methods: Fifteen Thoroughbred racehorses received 5 mL of 0.9% NaCl or 250 mg of furosemide either 4- or 24-h prior to a 5-furlong simulated race. Blood samples were collected prior to and post-run for determination of furosemide, lactate, haemoglobin and electrolyte concentrations. One-hour post-race, an endoscopic exam and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed. Horses were assigned an EIPH score based on predetermined criteria and the number of red blood cells in BAL fluid was determined. Results: Endoscopic EIPH scores were lower in the 4-h vs. the 24-h (P = 0.03) furosemide groups. RBC counts in BAL fluid were lower in the 4-h furosemide vs. saline treatment groups (P = 0.01) but no difference was noted between the saline and 24-h furosemide groups (P = 0.3), nor between the 4- and 24-h groups (P = 0.5). Main limitations: Small sample size and large range of running times for the 5-furlong work. Conclusions: While none of the treatments prevented EIPH, endoscopic scores and RBC counts in BAL fluid support the efficacy of furosemide in reducing the severity of EIPH. Endoscopic scores were lower in the 4-h furosemide group compared with 24-h administration. Red blood cell counts were lower in the 4-h furosemide group compared with saline treatment.

KW - Bronchoalveolar lavage

KW - Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage

KW - Furosemide

KW - Horse

KW - Horse racing

KW - Lasix

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U2 - 10.1111/evj.12760

DO - 10.1111/evj.12760

M3 - Article

C2 - 28963734

AN - SCOPUS:85032996204

JO - Equine veterinary journal. Supplement

JF - Equine veterinary journal. Supplement

SN - 2042-3306

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