Effect of the severity of maternal zinc deficiency on pregnancy outcome and infant zinc status in rhesus monkeys

Carl L Keen, B. Lonnerdal, M. S. Golub, K. L. Olin, T. W. Graham, J. Y. Uriu-Hare, Andrew G Hendrickx, M. Eric Gershwin

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Abstract

To investigate the effects of the severity of maternal zinc deficiency on early development, rhesus monkeys were fed diets that were either moderately zinc-deficient (MZD) (2 μg Zn/g) or marginal in zinc (M) (4 μg Zn/g throughout pregnancy and lactation. Dams in the MZD group developed overt signs of zinc deficiency. Compared with control dams fed diets adequate in zinc (C) (50 or 100 μg Zn/g), both M and MZD dams showed low mitogen response. Pregnancy outcome was similar in all groups, and infants were considered healthy at delivery. From birth until d 30, infants were closely monitored for signs of zinc deficiency. On d 30, infants were killed and tissues were analyzed for several parameters reported to be affected by zinc status. MZD infants tended to have lower plasma zinc concentrations than C infants, although the difference was only significant at d 14. M infants tended to have lower plasma zinc concentrations than C infants. Mitogen response was lower in MZD and M infants than in C infants. However, mitogen responses were similar in MZD and M infants. Liver zinc concentrations were similar among the three groups of infants; however, zinc and metallothionein concentrations in (10 000 x g) liver supernatant fractions were lower in the MZD and M groups than in the C group. 65Zn absorption/retention was higher in MZD and M mothers and infants than in C mothers and infants; there were no marked differences between MZD and M mothers or infants. In contrast to whole-body absorption, 65Zn uptake/retention by isolated hepatocytes was similar among the three infant groups. Plasma metallothionein concentrations were higher in the MZD mothers during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester than in the M or C mothers and higher than C mothers on d 30 postpartum; plasma metallothionein concentrations were similar among the three groups of infants. These results demonstrate that feeding a diet containing 2 μg Zn/g to rhesus monkeys during pregnancy and lactation results in marked signs of zinc deficiency, whereas feeding a diet containing 4 μg Zn/g results in only subtle signs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-241
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Research
Volume33
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1993

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Pregnancy Outcome
Macaca mulatta
Zinc
Mothers
Mitogens
Diet
Metallothionein
Lactation
Pregnancy
Liver

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Keen, C. L., Lonnerdal, B., Golub, M. S., Olin, K. L., Graham, T. W., Uriu-Hare, J. Y., ... Gershwin, M. E. (1993). Effect of the severity of maternal zinc deficiency on pregnancy outcome and infant zinc status in rhesus monkeys. Pediatric Research, 33(3), 233-241.

Effect of the severity of maternal zinc deficiency on pregnancy outcome and infant zinc status in rhesus monkeys. / Keen, Carl L; Lonnerdal, B.; Golub, M. S.; Olin, K. L.; Graham, T. W.; Uriu-Hare, J. Y.; Hendrickx, Andrew G; Gershwin, M. Eric.

In: Pediatric Research, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1993, p. 233-241.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Keen, CL, Lonnerdal, B, Golub, MS, Olin, KL, Graham, TW, Uriu-Hare, JY, Hendrickx, AG & Gershwin, ME 1993, 'Effect of the severity of maternal zinc deficiency on pregnancy outcome and infant zinc status in rhesus monkeys', Pediatric Research, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 233-241.
Keen CL, Lonnerdal B, Golub MS, Olin KL, Graham TW, Uriu-Hare JY et al. Effect of the severity of maternal zinc deficiency on pregnancy outcome and infant zinc status in rhesus monkeys. Pediatric Research. 1993;33(3):233-241.
Keen, Carl L ; Lonnerdal, B. ; Golub, M. S. ; Olin, K. L. ; Graham, T. W. ; Uriu-Hare, J. Y. ; Hendrickx, Andrew G ; Gershwin, M. Eric. / Effect of the severity of maternal zinc deficiency on pregnancy outcome and infant zinc status in rhesus monkeys. In: Pediatric Research. 1993 ; Vol. 33, No. 3. pp. 233-241.
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