Effect of mass shootings on gun sales - A 20-year perspective

Rachael A. Callcut, Anamaria M. Robles, Lucy Z. Kornblith, Rebecca E. Plevin, Matthew Mell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND Granular data on gun sales has been historically difficult to obtain. In 2016, California (CA) made monthly data from 1996 to 2015 publically available. Control charts are a method to analyze how a process changes over time in response to nonroutine events. We utilized this technique to study the impact of US mass shootings on CA gun sales. METHODS Monthly gun sales were provided by the CA Department of Justice and monthly fatalities from the CDC Wonder Death Certificate Registry. Mass shooting events were obtained from after-action reports, news media, and court proceedings. Time-ordered data were analyzed with control charts with 95% confidence intervals (upper control limit, lower control limit) using QiMacros. RESULTS Individual gun sales of 9,917,811 occurred in CA with a median monthly rate of 41,324 (range, 20,057-132,903). A median of 263 people lost their lives monthly from firearms (124 homicides, 128 suicides), totaling 53,975 fatalities from 1999 to 2015. Fifteen of 21 current deadliest mass shootings occurred during this study period with 40% from 2012 to 2015. Also, 36 school shootings occurred during the study (mean, 5 deaths; range, 0-33; 6 injuries; range, 0-23) with 31% in 2012 to 2015 at rate of 3 events/year versus 1.4 events/year in the 17 prior years (p < 0.05). Sales were generally consistent from 1996 to 2011 (except post-Columbine, Col). Starting in 2011, sales exceeded the 95% predicted upper control limit every single month. Before October 2011, there was no statistically significant sustained effect of mass shootings on sales (except Col); however, since a statistically significant proportional spike in sales occurred in the months immediately following every single deadliest mass shooting event. Every year since 2012, CA has strengthened gun laws in response to mass shootings yet sales have risen immediately preceding enactment of these laws each January. CONCLUSION Gun sales are more frequent since 2012, with an additional increase following both mass shootings and legislative changes enacted in response to these shootings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Epidemiology, level III.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)531-540
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Volume87
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019

Fingerprint

Firearms
Aquilegia
Death Certificates
Homicide
Social Justice
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Suicide
Registries
Epidemiology
Confidence Intervals
Wounds and Injuries

Keywords

  • firearms
  • gun sales
  • Gun violence
  • mass shootings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Cite this

Effect of mass shootings on gun sales - A 20-year perspective. / Callcut, Rachael A.; Robles, Anamaria M.; Kornblith, Lucy Z.; Plevin, Rebecca E.; Mell, Matthew.

In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Vol. 87, No. 3, 01.09.2019, p. 531-540.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Callcut, Rachael A. ; Robles, Anamaria M. ; Kornblith, Lucy Z. ; Plevin, Rebecca E. ; Mell, Matthew. / Effect of mass shootings on gun sales - A 20-year perspective. In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2019 ; Vol. 87, No. 3. pp. 531-540.
@article{897076d2a57e4e949586c704476740d3,
title = "Effect of mass shootings on gun sales - A 20-year perspective",
abstract = "BACKGROUND Granular data on gun sales has been historically difficult to obtain. In 2016, California (CA) made monthly data from 1996 to 2015 publically available. Control charts are a method to analyze how a process changes over time in response to nonroutine events. We utilized this technique to study the impact of US mass shootings on CA gun sales. METHODS Monthly gun sales were provided by the CA Department of Justice and monthly fatalities from the CDC Wonder Death Certificate Registry. Mass shooting events were obtained from after-action reports, news media, and court proceedings. Time-ordered data were analyzed with control charts with 95{\%} confidence intervals (upper control limit, lower control limit) using QiMacros. RESULTS Individual gun sales of 9,917,811 occurred in CA with a median monthly rate of 41,324 (range, 20,057-132,903). A median of 263 people lost their lives monthly from firearms (124 homicides, 128 suicides), totaling 53,975 fatalities from 1999 to 2015. Fifteen of 21 current deadliest mass shootings occurred during this study period with 40{\%} from 2012 to 2015. Also, 36 school shootings occurred during the study (mean, 5 deaths; range, 0-33; 6 injuries; range, 0-23) with 31{\%} in 2012 to 2015 at rate of 3 events/year versus 1.4 events/year in the 17 prior years (p < 0.05). Sales were generally consistent from 1996 to 2011 (except post-Columbine, Col). Starting in 2011, sales exceeded the 95{\%} predicted upper control limit every single month. Before October 2011, there was no statistically significant sustained effect of mass shootings on sales (except Col); however, since a statistically significant proportional spike in sales occurred in the months immediately following every single deadliest mass shooting event. Every year since 2012, CA has strengthened gun laws in response to mass shootings yet sales have risen immediately preceding enactment of these laws each January. CONCLUSION Gun sales are more frequent since 2012, with an additional increase following both mass shootings and legislative changes enacted in response to these shootings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Epidemiology, level III.",
keywords = "firearms, gun sales, Gun violence, mass shootings",
author = "Callcut, {Rachael A.} and Robles, {Anamaria M.} and Kornblith, {Lucy Z.} and Plevin, {Rebecca E.} and Matthew Mell",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1097/TA.0000000000002399",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "87",
pages = "531--540",
journal = "Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery",
issn = "2163-0755",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of mass shootings on gun sales - A 20-year perspective

AU - Callcut, Rachael A.

AU - Robles, Anamaria M.

AU - Kornblith, Lucy Z.

AU - Plevin, Rebecca E.

AU - Mell, Matthew

PY - 2019/9/1

Y1 - 2019/9/1

N2 - BACKGROUND Granular data on gun sales has been historically difficult to obtain. In 2016, California (CA) made monthly data from 1996 to 2015 publically available. Control charts are a method to analyze how a process changes over time in response to nonroutine events. We utilized this technique to study the impact of US mass shootings on CA gun sales. METHODS Monthly gun sales were provided by the CA Department of Justice and monthly fatalities from the CDC Wonder Death Certificate Registry. Mass shooting events were obtained from after-action reports, news media, and court proceedings. Time-ordered data were analyzed with control charts with 95% confidence intervals (upper control limit, lower control limit) using QiMacros. RESULTS Individual gun sales of 9,917,811 occurred in CA with a median monthly rate of 41,324 (range, 20,057-132,903). A median of 263 people lost their lives monthly from firearms (124 homicides, 128 suicides), totaling 53,975 fatalities from 1999 to 2015. Fifteen of 21 current deadliest mass shootings occurred during this study period with 40% from 2012 to 2015. Also, 36 school shootings occurred during the study (mean, 5 deaths; range, 0-33; 6 injuries; range, 0-23) with 31% in 2012 to 2015 at rate of 3 events/year versus 1.4 events/year in the 17 prior years (p < 0.05). Sales were generally consistent from 1996 to 2011 (except post-Columbine, Col). Starting in 2011, sales exceeded the 95% predicted upper control limit every single month. Before October 2011, there was no statistically significant sustained effect of mass shootings on sales (except Col); however, since a statistically significant proportional spike in sales occurred in the months immediately following every single deadliest mass shooting event. Every year since 2012, CA has strengthened gun laws in response to mass shootings yet sales have risen immediately preceding enactment of these laws each January. CONCLUSION Gun sales are more frequent since 2012, with an additional increase following both mass shootings and legislative changes enacted in response to these shootings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Epidemiology, level III.

AB - BACKGROUND Granular data on gun sales has been historically difficult to obtain. In 2016, California (CA) made monthly data from 1996 to 2015 publically available. Control charts are a method to analyze how a process changes over time in response to nonroutine events. We utilized this technique to study the impact of US mass shootings on CA gun sales. METHODS Monthly gun sales were provided by the CA Department of Justice and monthly fatalities from the CDC Wonder Death Certificate Registry. Mass shooting events were obtained from after-action reports, news media, and court proceedings. Time-ordered data were analyzed with control charts with 95% confidence intervals (upper control limit, lower control limit) using QiMacros. RESULTS Individual gun sales of 9,917,811 occurred in CA with a median monthly rate of 41,324 (range, 20,057-132,903). A median of 263 people lost their lives monthly from firearms (124 homicides, 128 suicides), totaling 53,975 fatalities from 1999 to 2015. Fifteen of 21 current deadliest mass shootings occurred during this study period with 40% from 2012 to 2015. Also, 36 school shootings occurred during the study (mean, 5 deaths; range, 0-33; 6 injuries; range, 0-23) with 31% in 2012 to 2015 at rate of 3 events/year versus 1.4 events/year in the 17 prior years (p < 0.05). Sales were generally consistent from 1996 to 2011 (except post-Columbine, Col). Starting in 2011, sales exceeded the 95% predicted upper control limit every single month. Before October 2011, there was no statistically significant sustained effect of mass shootings on sales (except Col); however, since a statistically significant proportional spike in sales occurred in the months immediately following every single deadliest mass shooting event. Every year since 2012, CA has strengthened gun laws in response to mass shootings yet sales have risen immediately preceding enactment of these laws each January. CONCLUSION Gun sales are more frequent since 2012, with an additional increase following both mass shootings and legislative changes enacted in response to these shootings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Epidemiology, level III.

KW - firearms

KW - gun sales

KW - Gun violence

KW - mass shootings

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071712323&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85071712323&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/TA.0000000000002399

DO - 10.1097/TA.0000000000002399

M3 - Article

C2 - 31162332

AN - SCOPUS:85071712323

VL - 87

SP - 531

EP - 540

JO - Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

JF - Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

SN - 2163-0755

IS - 3

ER -