Objective - To determine the effect of 6 plasma ketamine concentrations on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in dogs. Animals - 6 dogs. Procedure - In experiment 1, the MAC of isoflurane was measured in each dog and the pharmacokinetics of ketamine were determined in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs after IV administration of a bolus (3 mg/kg) of ketamine. In experiment 2, the same dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen. A target-controlled IV infusion device was used to administer ketamine and to achieve plasma ketamine concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, and 11 μg/mL by use of parameters obtained from experiment 1. The MAC of isoflurane was determined at each plasma ketamine concentration, and blood samples were collected for ketamine and norketamine concentration determination. Results - Actual mean ± SD plasma ketamine concentrations were 1.07 ± 0.42 μg/mL, 1.62 ± 0.98 μg/mL, 3.32 ± 0.59 μg/mL, 4.92 ± 2.64 μg/mL, 13.03 ± 10.49 μg/mL, and 22.80 ± 25.56 μg/mL for target plasma concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, and 11 μg/mL, respectively. At these plasma concentrations, isoflurane MAC was reduced by 10.89% to 39.48%, 26.77% to 43.74%, 25.24% to 84.89%, 44.34% to 78.16 %, 69.62% to 92.31%, and 71.97% to 95.42%, respectively. The reduction in isoflurane MAC was significant, and the response had a linear and quadratic component. Salivation, regurgitation, mydriasis, increased body temperature, and spontaneous movements were some of the adverse effects associated with the high plasma ketamine concentrations. Conclusions and clinical relevance - Ketamine appears to have a potential role for balanced anesthesia in dogs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas