Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) is the most common intraocular infection encountered in ophthalmic practices. To assess the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence of CMVR and subsequent retinal detachments, a retrospective review of the HIV+ patients seen at a single university and community-based practice between 1992-1993 (group 1), before the advent of protease inhibitors, was compared with the data obtained from October 1996 to October 1997 (group 2) and October 1997-1998 (group 3), after the widespread use of HAART. The incidence of CMVR and retinal detachment rates for each group was calculated and compared. Twenty five (2.6%) of 974 HIV+ patients in group 1 developed CMVR. Of these, four patients developed retinal detachment (16%). Group 2 had a total of 1084 HIV+ patients, 18 (1.7%) of whom developed CMVR, which indicates a 35% decline of the incidence of CMV retinitis at our institution (p = 0.052, Odds ratio = 0.533, confidence interval 0.28-1.01) and three patients (20%) developed retinal detachment. Only 1 patient (0.07%) of 1274 patients in group 3 developed CMVR, which represents a 99% reduction since 1993 (p = 0.0000000456). We conclude that the incidence of CMVR at this institution has decreased significantly with the recent use of HAART therapy. This effect may be related to the aggressive use of HAART and associated immune recovery in this population of AIDS patients. In this small series, however, the rate of retinal detachment appeared unchanged, but was only observed in those individuals who were not on HAART or who had just recently started.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Leadership and Management