Effect of freezing on distribution of trace elements and minerals in human and cow's milk

Gun Britt Fransson, Bo Lönnerdal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Freezing is a common method for preserving human milk during storage and transport prior to its use for feeding to infants or for research purposes. Freezing milk samples may change the trace element and mineral distribution among their binding compounds, potentially affecting the bioavailability of these elements. In this study fresh human and cow's milk samples were fractionated and the distribution of these elements among fractions determined before and after freezing. Overall, very little effect of freezing was found on mineral distribution in human milk. Similarly, freezing did not have a strong effect on cow's milk; minor changes were observed for iron, copper, zinc and calcium in a few fractions. Thus, it is unlikely that freezing will affect the bioavability of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium from human milk and cow's milk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)845-853
Number of pages9
JournalNutrition Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1983
Externally publishedYes


  • Calcium
  • Copper
  • Human Milk
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Milk
  • Minerals
  • Trace Elements
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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