Effect of fentanyl, with or without treatment of bradycardia, on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane and cardiovascular function in dogs

Marcela L. Machado, Joao H.N. Soares, Bruno H. Pypendop, Natalia Henao-Guerrero, Renato L.S. Oliveira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To determine the effect of fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACISO) and cardiovascular variables in dogs, and how the treatment of bradycardia affects them. Study design: Prospective, randomized crossover-controlled trial. Animals: A total of six male Beagle dogs weighing 9.9 ± 0.7 kg (mean ± standard deviation) and aged 13 months. Methods: To each dog, two treatments were assigned on different days: fentanyl (FENTA) or fentanyl plus glycopyrrolate (FENTAglyco) to maintain heart rate (HR) between 100 and 132 beats minute−1. Determinations of MACISO were performed with 10 plasma fentanyl target concentrations ([Fenta]Target (0, 0.16, 0.32, 0.64, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 ng mL−1) for FENTA and 5 [Fenta]Target (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 ng mL−1)) for FENTAglyco. During each MACISO determination, cardiovascular variables [mean arterial pressure (MAP), HR and cardiac index (CI)] were measured, and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) calculated. Pharmacodynamic models were used to describe the plasma fentanyl concentration [Fenta]–response relationship for the effect on MACISO and cardiovascular variables. A mixed-model analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's or Tukey's test, and the Bonferroni adjustment were used for comparisons within and between each treatment, respectively. Significance was set as p < 0.05. Results: Fentanyl decreased MACISO by a maximum of 84%. The [Fenta] producing 50% decrease in MAC, HR and CI were 2.64, 3.65 and 4.30 ng mL−1 (typical values of population model), respectively. The prevention of fentanyl-mediated bradycardia caused no significant effect on MACISO, but increased HR, MAP and CI, and decreased SVRI when compared with isoflurane alone. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Fentanyl caused a plasma concentration-dependent decrease in MACISO, HR and CI and an increase in SVRI. Cardiovascular improvements associated with fentanyl in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs only occurred when the fentanyl-mediated bradycardia was prevented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalVeterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • cardiovascular
  • dog
  • fentanyl
  • isoflurane
  • minimum alveolar concentration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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